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# Psychology 1000- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 184 pages long!)

by OC2177622

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Psychology 1000

MIDTERM EXAM

STUDY GUIDE

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Psych 1000 Appendix: Statistics

October 14, 2014

1

Statistics

o How do statistics help us understand data?

o How do we calculate measures of central tendency? (Know how to calculate)

o What does variance mean? (Understand this, but not necessary to calculate)

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Examples of Statistics

• In North America…

o 99% of homes have 1 or more TV(s)

o The average # of TV’s per house = .

o Average daily viewing = 6 hours 47 mins

o 66% watch while eating dinner

o 50 million Netflix subscribers

• The average Canadian family has 2.3 children

• Car x gets an average 9 km/L

Central Tendency = mean, median, and mode

Mean (x̄ ); M

• Add up numbers and divide by N (# of students)

• Can be strongly affected by one or more extremely high or low scores that don’t

represent the group as a whole

• x̄ xmas = 68

Median (MDN)

• Midpoint of ranked distribution

o If there are an even number of scores in the set, take the mean of the 2

middle numbers

• Used when data is extreme (outlaws), ex. Salaries

• MDNxmas = 64.5

Mode

• Most frequent score, easy to view from a frequency distribution

• MODExmas = 60

Normal Curve

• Symmetrical bell-shaped curve

o Overall shape determine by dispersion of scores

• x̄ ≅ MDN ≅ MODE

Range

• Difference between highest and lowest score

o Influenced by extreme scores

o Same value can be obtained with a variety of scores

• Rangexmas = 85 – 58 = 27

Variance (s2)

• Degree of fluctuation of scores around the mean

• Some distributions have high variance, others are relatively low

• Take each deviation score, square it, and add up the squared scores

Psych Xmas Exam Scores

Student

Grade

1

85

2

60

3

72

4

58

5

60

6

80

7

69

8

60

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Psych 1000 Appendix: Statistics

October 14, 2014

2

• Standard Deviation (s or SD) is the square root of the variance

o The smaller the SD, the pointier the graph

▪ Want a smaller graph because it shows a pattern rather than a lot of

variation in distribution

o Z-score = score - x̄

• Produces a number in standard deviation units

• Calculates the distance from the mean x

In Summary

• A group of scores shows distributions

• Analyze data by looking at frequency, mean, median, and mode

• Shape influenced by spread

o Range

o Variance

• Z-scores allow comparisons to the mean

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