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Midterm #4 (Ch. 12-15) Review A great resource to study the details discussed in Chapters 12, 13, 14, & 15. For the fourth and final exam in the course.

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Study Guide

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Chapter 12 Personality
Personality the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that
characterize a person’s responses to life situations
Aspects of personality have three characteristics:
o Seen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other people
o Behaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental
o Behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion, suggesting an inner personality
that guides and directs behaviour
The Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
o Considered personality to be an energy system
o Psychic energy generated by instinctual drives, this energy powers the mind and
constantly presses for either direct or indirect release
Buildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity, or
indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictions
o Mental events are divided:
Conscious events that we are presently aware of
Preconscious memories, thoughts, feelings, images that we are unaware of at
the moment, but can be recalled
Unconscious dynamic realm of wishes, feelings, and impulses that lie beyond
our awareness
o Personality divided into three separate but interacting structures:
Id primitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instincts
Operates according to the pleasure principle (seeks immediate
gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations or reality)
Ego executive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id,
prohibitions of superego, and dictates of reality
Operates according to reality principle (tests reality to decide when the
id can safely discharge impulses)
Superego moral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of
Rewards compliance with pride, and non-compliance with guilt
o Id and superego are formed when child is young, ego develops later
o Iceberg analogy id is below the water (unconscious), while ego and superego are
mostly above water (conscious)
Ego is mostly above water, while superego has portions both above and under
o Unconscious conflict interaction of id, ego, and superego results in constant struggle,
causing anxiety
Reality anxiety ego’s fear of real world threats
Neurotic anxiety ego’s fear of id’s desires
Moral anxiety ego’s fear of guilt from superego
o Defense mechanisms unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression
of anxiety-arousing impulses
Repression ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories
from entering consciousness
Sublimination (displacement) completely masking the sinister underlying
impulses through other forms (art, sports, etc.)
Rationalization urge reinterpreted in acceptable terms
Projection own urges seen in others (“I hate you” becomes “You hate me”)
Isolation memories allowed back into consciousness without motives or
Regression mentally returning to an earlier, safer state

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Conversion conflict converted into physical symptom (developing blindness
so as not to see an anxiety-arousing situation)
o Psychosexual stages stages of development in which psychic energy is focused on
certain body parts
Oral (0-2), Anal (2-3), Phallic (4-6), Latency (7-puberty), Genital (puberty+)
Deprivation or overindulgences in a stage can result in fixation, in which
instincts are focused on a particular theme
Oedipus complex the male child experiences erotic feelings toward his mother
and views his father as a rival (female’s complex referred to as Electra complex)
Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory
o Alfred Adler insisted that humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest
(the desire to advance the welfare of others)
o Carl Jung developed analytic psychology
Humans not only posses a personal unconscious of life experiences, but a
collective unconscious of memories accumulated throughout the history of
Memories are represented by archetypes, inherited tendencies to interpret
experience in certain ways
o Object relations the images or mental representations that people form of themselves
and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers
The Humanistic Perspective
Self-actualization the total realization of one’s human potential
Carl Rogers’s Self Theory
o Self an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself
Must have self-consistency (absence of conflict among self-perceptions) and
congruency (consistency between self-perceptions and experiences) to maintain
Experiences that are inconsistent with self-concept evokes threat and anxiety
o People are born with a need for positive regard (acceptance, sympathy, and love)
Unconditional positive regard communicated attitude of total and
unconditional acceptance of another person
Conditional positive regard dependant on behaviour of the child
Need for positive self-regard develops
Lack of unconditional positive regard leafs to belief that they are worthy of love
only when standards are met
Fosters development of conditions of worth that dictate when we
approve or disapprove of ourselves
o Fully functioning persons self-actualized people who are free from unrealistic
conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence, spontaneity, creativity, and a desire to
develop further
Research on the Self
o Self-esteem how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves
Children develop high self-esteem when parents communicate unconditional
acceptance and love, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, and reinforce
compliance while giving the child freedom to make decisions
o Self-verification a need to preserve self-concept by maintaining self-consistency and
o Self-enhancement processes whereby one enhances positive self-regard
o Gender schemas organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the
attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for both genders
Trait and Biological Perspectives
Factor analysis statistical technique that permits a researcher to reduce a large number of
measures to a small number of clusters or factors

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o Factor of introversion includes not attending parties, enjoying solitary activities, etc.
Raymond B. Cattell developed 16 basic behaviour clusters of personality
Hans Eysenck proposed two basic dimensions of personality
o Introversion-Extraversion and Stability-Instability
o Added third factor called Psychoticism (creativity, impulsivity, social deviance) Self
o Linked dimensions to differences in normal patterns of arousal in brain
Claimed introverts to be overaroused
Big Five factor model proposes that openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and
neuroticism are principle factors of personality
Mershon and Gersuch found that theories with more traits (such as Cattell’s) are better at
predicting specific behaviours
Traits found to be both stable and changing
o Introversion-extraversion, emotionality, and activity level are quite stable
o Stability found in optimistic or pessimistic view to negative life events
Three factors cause difficulty in prediction on basis of personality traits’ relation to behaviour
o Traits interact with other traits and characteristics in different situations
o Degree of consistency across situations is influenced by how important a given trait is for
a person
o People differ in tendency to tailor behaviour to what is called for by the situation
Self-monitoring personality trait that reflects people’s tendencies to regulate
social behaviour in accord with situational cues as opposed to internal values,
attitudes, and needs
Social Cognitive Theories
Social cognitive theorists combine behavioural and cognitive perspectives into an approach to
personality that stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment that
provides learning experiences
o Take into account both internal and external factors
Reciprocal determinism two way causal relations between the person, behaviour, and the
Julian Rotter: Expectancy, Reinforcement Value, and Locus of Control
o Likelihood that we engage in a particular behaviour in a given situation is influenced by
two factors: expectancy and reinforcement value
Expectancy perception of how likely that certain consequences will occur if
we engage in a particular behaviour
Reinforcement value how much we desire or dread the outcome that we expect
o Internal-external locus of control generalized expectancy that one’s outcomes are under
personal versus external control
Albert Bandura: Social Learning and Self-Efficacy
o Self-efficacy beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviours needed to
achieve desired outcomes
Key factor in way people regulate their lives
o Four different determinants of self-efficacy:
Performance attainments in similar situations
Observational learning (if another person similar to yourself can accomplish a
certain goal, so can you)
Verbal persuasion
Emotional arousal (anxiety or fatigue tend to decrease self-efficacy)
Personality Assessment
o Should not limit attention to what interviewee says, but also how they say it
o Characteristics of interviewer and interviewee can affect validity of information
Behaviour Assessment
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