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Final

Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Scientific Method, Encoding Specificity Principle, Retrospective MemoryPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Lyn Fazakas Dehoog
Study Guide
Final

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University of Western Ontario
PSYCHOLOGY 1000
Introduction to Psychology
2019/2020
December Exam
Study Guide
OVERVIEW:

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PSYCHOLOGY 1000 DECEMBER EXAM STUDY GUIDE
2
Section 1:
Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception
Lectures: 16-18
Section 2:
Chapter 6: States of Consciousness
Lectures: 19-21
Section 3:
Chapter 7: Learning and Adaptation Role of Experience
Lectures: 22-25
Section 4:
Chapter 8: Memory
Lectures: 26-28
SECTION 1 Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception
(Lectures 16-18)

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PSYCHOLOGY 1000 DECEMBER EXAM STUDY GUIDE
3
Sensation the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond
to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the
brain
Perception active process of organizing the stimulus input and giving it
meaning
Sensory Processes
Stimulus detection absolute threshold designated as the lowest intensity at
which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time
Signal detection theory concerned with the factors that influence sensory
judgments
o Decision criterion standard of how certain a person must be that a
stimulus is present before they will say they detect it
o Increased rewards for noticing stimuli often results in lower detection
thresholds
o Increased danger/punishment for noticing stimuli often raises detection
threshold
Difference threshold smallest difference between two stimuli that can be
perceived 50% of the time (just noticeable difference jnd)
o Weber’s Law – to perceive a difference between two stimuli, one must
differ by a constant ratio
Value for weights = 1/50, therefore if 50 lbs. is lifted, increased
weight will only be detected at 51 lbs.
Smaller fraction = higher sensitivity
Doesn’t apply to extremely high or low stimulation intensities
Sensory adaptation the diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus
o Perception of stimuli will decrease if constantly present
Subliminal stimuli sensory stimuli below our sensory threshold, think of how
messaged “drink coke” affect how we think
The Sensory Systems
Vision
The Human Eye
o Light enters eye through cornea (transparent protective structure)
o Pupil adjustable opening that dilates or constricts to control amount of
light entering
o Iris controls the pupil
o Lens elastic structure that becomes thinner to focus on distant objects
and thicker to focus on nearby objects
Image flipped and reversed onto retina
Ability to see clearly depends on lens’ ability to focus image onto
retina
Myopia (nearsightedness) lens focuses image in front of
retina
Hyperopia (farsightedness) lens focuses image behind
retina
o Retina multi-layered tissue at rear of eyeball
Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones
o Retina covered in light-sensitive receptor cells
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