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Psychology 2011A/B

Winter 2013 Midterm Main Ideas: Political Science : the systematic study of government and politics What is power? Who has it? 4 Major Ideas: 1. Power- Ability to make somebody do something 2. Coursion- Persuasion 3. Influence- Encouraging somebody to do something for own personal benefit (blackmailing) 4. Authority- How do you get authority. Limits to authority. Government could raise taxes, but they couldn't tell you you couldn't buy something. Early Origins of Political Science Aristotle, and Plato were concerned about a good life- life of excellence, trying to improve human condition. -the power of the state comes first, good of the state surpasses the good of the individual -we look at Locke (social contract, founder of liberalism, constitution), Aquinas (thoeology, law), Hobbes -Adam Smith (government playing small role in individuals' lives) -Splitting up economics and political science (started to deal with law, history, study of politics, structure) American Origin vs Canadian Origin Approaches to Political Science -Behavioral revolution (should be a role for people within systems) -Divisions and battles -Pluralistic approach (different approaches; no one right methodology (way) to study political science) -Empirical vs. normative (how the world functions, arguments based on fact, more research will lead to more ethics vs. what ought to be in the world Main Approaches: -Institutionalism -Behaviouralism -Public Choice (rational ideas, application of economics, assumptions of human behavior, how would behavior change if situation changed -Political Economy Organization of the Discipline: -Political Philosophy -Canadian Politics (thousands of municiple governments, native structure, provincial government) -Comparative Politics -International Relations Why Study Political Science? -go on to teach it -citizenship -part of liberal arts education -applicable to several careers Chapter 1: Society, Government and Politics Political Science: “the systematic study of government and politics” Society: a human group whose members live by common rules of conduct and which has a plausible claim to self-sufficiency • rules of conduct= regular and predictable behaviour • all human activities are conducted within a framework of these rules • understanding and living by rules that govern relationships is the essence of social order Government: a specialized activity of those individuals and institutions that make and enforce public decisions that are building upon the whole community (compulsion, not voluntary decision making) An effective government….. • protects society from external attack • enforce rules of conduct within society • settle disputes between members of society Governments… • selectively use force to maintain a stable and durable social order • provide services for members of society (ex-deliver mail, pave highways, operate health insurance schemes, provide old-age pensions) • there essence is to maintain peace within the social order by enforcing rules of conduct Politics: a process of conflict resolution in which support is mobilized and maintained for collective projects. • politics is often called the ‘art of compromise’, because problems rarely have a solution to satisfy all, so settlements are made- an arrangement that makes nobody perfectly happy, but everyone can live with (it must resolve disagreements among people with different opinions and desires) • Politics is the distribution of the good things of earthly life, such as wealth, comfort, safety, prestige, and recognition Coalitions: Politics in Action: Coalition: the joining of forces by 2 or more parties during a conflict of interest with other parties (coalitions involves conflict and cooperation) 3 Kinds of Coalitions: 1. In small scale settings, coalitions are based on personal relationships among individuals 2. Formal alliances: NATO- 26 countries came together and pledged to defend each other in case of attack. 3. Mass politics of modern democracies (party leaders from electoral coalitions by proposing policies to attract certain groups of voters). -government and politics are universal aspects of human existence Government is the process that makes and enforces rules and decisions for society ; politics is the activity of reconciling conflicts and gathering support that makes government possible. Government and politics both arise from… • the need for people to live in societies • for a society to succeed, people must settle conflicts and abide by common rules in such a way that the community is not endangered Chapter 2: Power, Legitimacy and Authority Power: is the capacity to achieve what you want (physically, to perform a task; intellectually, the capacity to solve a problem; and socially to induce others to do what you want). 3 Main forms of Power: 1. Influence 2. Coercion 3. Authority Influence: the ability to persuade others to do your will, to convince them what you want them to do. Forms of Influence: -appeals to the intellect (convincing people a given action is best) -appeals to the passions (persuading people to act by playing directly on the emotions -to see more, go to page 16 -Government often seeks to influence electorate (ex- to stop smoking, to exercise more, conserve energy, drink less alcohol, support Canadian unity, etc) Coercion is the deliberate subjection of one will to another through fear of harm or threats of harm. - when coercion is applied, compliance is not voluntary but results from fear of unpleasant consequences -very powerful Different forms of coercion: -Violence involves physical harm, such as beating, torture, and murder. - imprisonment is enforced by violence if a prisoner tries to leave custody -monetary penalties (getting a fine) and strikes Authority: a form of power in which people obey commands not because they have been rationally or emotionally persuaded, or because they cooperate out of fear of consequences if they disobey, but simply because they respect the source of command -one who issues command, has authority, those who receive a command, have an obligation to obey Natural authority= human tendencies to follow and imitate, and lead and imitate (friends, family, colleagues) Public Authority: is created by human agreement Public authority and social order: power is required in society and it must be coercive power if a given society is to be open and free. Legitimacy: • Authority is a social relationship • authority= right of command (focused in the one in command) • legitimacy= belief in rightness of government (acceptance of command, respect for authority) • obligation= sense of duty -public authority only survives as long as people given it some degree of legitimacy in society Traditional Authority: is dominated based on inherited position (like hereditary monarchs- who never got voted into power, but who inherit a position of power from a parent). Legal Authority: general rules of binding on all participants in the system Modernization: development in modern political history is for traditional authority to be replaced by legal authority (began in great britain, and american colonies in 17th century) Charismatic authority: is based on the projection and perception of extraordinary personal qualities. Chapter 3: Sovereignty, State and Citizenship Sovereign: denotes who is superior (we lower ourselves to recognize authority) • kings/queens on thrones to physically be above up • we look up to God, highest power, as being high above us • the term absolute monarchs refers to royalty who could do what they please, because no other human had authority superior to theirs • Sovereignty is the authority to override all other authorities (3 forms; personal, parliamentary, popular) • highest authority meaning to enforce all rules (by establishing tribunals, compensating victims, punishing offenders), another is the power to make laws, amend existing laws and repeal old law • can control executive functions of government (raise revenues, maintain armed forces, minting currency, providing other services to society) • Personal: The right to exercise domestic rule free from interference by other sovereigns (elections) • Parliamentary sovereignty: means that parliament may make or repeal whatever laws it chooses ( • Popular sovereignty: (Rousseau) refers to supreme authority residing in the people • the MOST important part of parliament is the House of Commons (members are elected) • Judicial review is the power of the courts to declare that actions taken by other branches of government violate the constitution • International Law: Means that a state is independent of all other states and possesses the totality of political power within its border The State • a State is defined by the joint presence of 3 factors: population, territory, and sovereignty • a state exists when a sovereign power effectively rules over a population residing within the boundaries of a fixed territory • The state is the universal form of political organization in the modern world Citizenship: • Citizenship is membership within the state • the terms came about from ‘polis’, meaning the right to participant in public affairs, to vote or hold public office • modern citizenship is universal (it wasn’t many years ago) • right of residence, right to vote or hold office • responsibilities to pay taxes • the essential feature of modern universal citizenship is the right to live within the territorial boundaries of the state (section 6 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms) • non-citizens need special permission to reside in CA • can be kicked out of CA for convicted a serious criminal offence, or if you entered under false pretences • political rights are a part of citizenship (CA included) in most of the world (Section 3 of Charter of R and F) • Naturalization is the procedure in which an adult is granted citizenship • jus soli right of soil (born in the country, you have a right to citizenship) • jus sanguinis right of blood (born from citizens, you have a right to citizenship) • Canadian citizenship did not exist until 1947, when the 1st citizenship act came into effect • 4 KEY CONCEPTS SO FAR; society, state, politics and government Chapter 4: The Nation Nation State: nation is added to the word state to emphasize that the state is participatory- that it is an association of citizens, not just an organized system of power within a certain territory -this term raises problems in Canada -nation is almost a synonym for state Nation: an identity shared by a large number of people based upon, but not reducible to, objective factors such as common race, language, religion, customs and government. -french revolution began modernization and nationality in Europe -other people in Europe thought of themselves as nations, even if they were not French or German -a major development of the 20th century was the spread of European style nationalism to the rest of the world -national identity is based on some combination of language, race, religion, and government,but none of these are necessary or sufficient -Ethnic nations are those in which the national identity depends primarily on objective factors, such as language, race, or religion -Civic nations have an identity that depends primarily on acceptance of the political order Problems of Ethnicity -Sub state Nations- such as the francophone's in Canada. -Indigenous or aboriginal peoples- first nations, north American Indians, -Immigrants, such a Italian Canadians, Chinese Canadians Nations and States -nation-states exist where the limits of common identity coincide with the boundaries of sovereign authority -when minorities accept the legitimacy of the state, they can be regarded as ethnic groups within the nation -binational state (Canada) exists when two nations coexist within one state -multinational state (India) exists when three or more nations coexist under one sovereign government Chapter 5: Political Culture and Socialization Culture: the pattern of beliefs and behaviour of a people, including the place of the family, the role of religion, and the influence of economics and politics (attitudes, values and beliefs that accompany these). Political Culture: the part of culture having to do with politics (attitudes, values and beliefs people have developed towards government). Ideology: Notions about what government is and what it ought to be. 3 Basic Categories of Political Culture: 1. Parochial Culture- in this type of culture, people hold rather negative views of government and as a result, they participant little in the political system (low expectation of gov) 2. Subject Culture- in this type of culture, people hold more positive evaluations of governments, but remain largely uninvolved (medium expectation of gov) 3. Participatory Culture- people expect to participate in politics and that government will be responsive to citizen demands (high expectation of gov) The proper mixture of the three types creates a civic culture – results in a stable democracy Political Culture distinguishes between….. 1. Polyarchal Culture: Polyarchal cultures display high levels of citizen engagement and broad agreement on basic social values -People in these cultures treat others, including political opponents, with respect 2. Fragmented cultures: display high levels of citizen engagement and low levels of agreement on the rules of the game -Politics in such cultures is often violent, brutal, and deadly, and governments are rarely stable 3. Collectivist Cultures: Collectivist cultures display broad agreement on social values but offer little citizen engagement -Lack of engagement stems from the knowledge that engagement is fruitless and that it can sometimes be dangerous Trends in Political Culture Scarcity hypothesis: which argues that things in short supply are more desirable than things that are abundant. Socialization hypothesis: which argues that one’s values are shaped and set relatively early in life As a result of these 2 hypotheses, Inglehart argues that recent generations have grown up taking their physical and economic security for granted and, as a result, their priorities differ from those of previous generations. Previous generations are predominantly materialists, concerned with physical and economic security. Recent generations are predominantly post-materialists, concerned with self-fulfillment and self-expression **See chart on page 55 Social Capital- consists of the social networks and levels of trust and reciprocity that exist in a community -greater level of community interaction and trust, the greater the democratic health of that community is likely to be Secularization- the decreasing importance assigned to religion in the modern world- means that religion would cease to be a factor of much importance over time Political Socialization: Political Socialization the means by which a political culture is transmitted from generation to generation. How do young people hear/learn about politics? What are there views on politics? Chapter 6: Law Law: a rule of human conduct that is enforced by the community, by means of coercion or violence if necessary (rule or regularity in the behaviour of any element in the universe) -laws are the foundation of society - personal rule of conduct = habit -habit gradually merges with custom as social factors come more into play -examples of conduct include politeness, manners, clothing -habits and customs create regularities in human behaviour without coercive enforcement in situations where the incentives to violate or ignore them are small or nonexistent -the enforcement of law performs a number of functions for society than can be remembered as the 4 R’s Retribution (the punishment of those who violate the norms of society) Restitution (provision of compensation to those who have been harmed by the rule breakers) Rehabilitation (change in conduct that will prevent law breaking in the future) Restraint (deterrence-the fear we instill in those who cannot be swayed by authority) -we do not need to know a rule in order to follow it (we need to know how to act) (children know what is fair, prior to understanding the rules of justice) -rules are not necessarily designed by conscious intelligence Customary Law and Common Law: -Customary Law -this sort of law arises gradually and cannot be traced to an identifiable moment in time (based on tradition) -Legislation is consciously formulated and deliberately constructed -each type of law is equally enforceable -Common Law the sum of a vast number of cases decided by English courts since the middle ages -common law is flexible (Law need never become obsolete so long as judges are reasonably free to follow precedents -Yet consistency is still protected as any deviation from the rule must be justified on principle by another rule Legislation: Consciously formulated and deliberately constructed Statute: A particular piece of legislation (Example: legislation on bridge construction; licensing requirements for driving) Code: A comprehensive set of interrelated rules (Example: Criminal Code) -the expansion of legislations has certain advantages; they can foresee situations and try and prevent conflicts -common law adjudication must wait for conflict to arise -Public Law : Creates agencies of the state and controls the relations between the state and its subjects -Private Law : Controls relations between individuals (laws on divorce) -Quebec goes by Code Civil, and the rest of Canada goes by common law -in Canada, a large section of common laws have been replaced by legislated statutes or codes Natural Law and Human Rights: -Natural Law transcends law put in place by the state and the will of the sovereign -ex: Are rights that all human beings are supposed to enjoy simply by virtue of being human (right of religion.. etc) -Positive Law -Human rights are the right that all human beings are supposed to enjoy simply by virtue of being human (freedom of who to marry, to have children, religion) Delegated Legislation: Orders in Council: formal decisions of the cabinet Regulations: rules created by a minister if a government department or by an independent agency, such as the Canadian Huma
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