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Psychology 2135A/B
Anthony Skelton

COG SCI REVIEW Cognitive science – the interdisciplinary study of the mind Challenge of cognitive science - Access to the input or action stimuli - See the output, the behaviour of the stimuli - Inner workings of the mind (representations and processes but we cannot observe what is going on in the mind 4 course themes - The black box - How breakdowns can illuminate the mind o How the mind fails, affects how the mind works o Example any of the illusions - How time can illuminate the mind o Brain has a use it or lose it mentality o Example, studying - Cognitive complexity and the necessity of bias Relationship between computational complexity and bias - Processes require resources o Time o Memory o Energy - Resource requirements vary for different tasks - Resources are limited - Bias o Systematic errors o Processes can be inferred based on how and under what conditions the mind fails Logic and benefits of using RT - Time from an onset of a stimulus until a response is made - Processing time in perceptual experiments - Different stimuluses have different responses Parallel constraint satisfaction - Searching for an assignment of values given a set of variables so that the values satisfy the constraint Compare and contrast hebbian learning and back propagation - Hebbian learning o Two neurons are strengthened if the neurons fire simultaneously o One cells firing repeatedly contributes to the firing of another cell, the magnitude should increase in time - Back propagation o Training a neural net in which the initial system output is compared to the desired output o The system is adjusted until the difference is minimized o Used to decrease the error of function Principles of good design - Provide a good model that allows prediction of effects of action - Make things visible - How to operate device - Mapping between controls and actions o Good mapping shows clear and obvious controls and how they start each action o Crucial distinctions o Feedback Pros and cons of satisficing and elimination by aspects - Satisficing o Abandon optimal goal in favor for one that is satisfactory o Searches through alternatives until a satisfactory one is found o Picking the one that is the best , if it is satisfactory o Good for quick choices - Elimination by aspects o Focuses on individual aspects of choices o Elimating alternatives that don’t meet criteria of aspect o Repeat until one choice left Compare and contrast system 1 and system 2 - System 1 – automatic o Fast, with little effort o Used for computational complexity o Similar to heuristics - System 2 – effortful o Slow, requires attention o You feel in control when you make it happen o Reduce resources we use o How we make decisions in the world, used to identify Examples of attribute substitution - Answering an easier question - Taking a hard question and using system one to make easier question Availability, affect and representative heuristics - Availability o Want to estimate the size of a category or frequency of event but insead you report an impression of ease with the instances that come to mind o Overestimate rare events o People make judgements about the probability of events by how easy it is to think of examples - Affect o Substitute feeling for thinking o Peoples likes and dislikes determine their beliefs about the world o If you dislike something you think the risk are high with no benefits - Representativeness o Substitute similarity for probability o Estimate probability but instead report an impression of similarity o Use probability that remind you of objects that are similar Opt-in choices and
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