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Psychology 2550A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Self-Awareness, David Buss, Semantic Differential

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Phenomenological approaches to personality
- Phenomenology = “to appear” in Greek (study of consciousness and self-awareness
- Conscious awareness of one’s environment: the way a person interprets reality
- Self: key concept
- Carl rogers and George Kelly are the prominent theorists
Rogerian theory of personality
- Disncon must be made between:
o Objecve reality ( exists, can be measured) and subjecve reality (personal
- Self-concept: the way a person sees him or herself and determined by:
Objecve way: objecve reality
Interpretaon of that objecve reality: subjecve reality
Objecve reality + subjecve reality = phenomenal eld
- Ideal self: the self that you would like to be
- Self-acceptance: distance btn self-concept and ideal-self (close they are, beer you are)
o Ideal self and self-acceptance are in contrast with self-esteem
Personality assessment
1. Content analysis:
- Inially used by rogers to evaluate self-concept
- Subject talk about self and experimenter transcripts descripve statements into categories,
then analyzed the content
2. Adjecve checklist
- Series of adjecves presented, the subject must pick those that apply to self
Not good methods! Cannot compare dierent people on the same aribute
3. Semanc dierenal
- The subject is asked to rate a smulus word on several 7 point
o Self? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
- To measure self-acceptance: administrated the test twice, one for the self-concept another
one for the ideal concept! Then compare!
- Two ways to compare:
o Self-ideal correlaon: look the shape of the 2 proles (correlaon)
BUT: shows the prole but not how much they diered from each other
o Self-ideal discrepancies: look at the discrepancy between the two smulus scale
BUT: its scale dependant (9 or 11 categories)
There is no negave direcon (squared)
Its not a signicant test
4. Q sort
- The subject is given 100 cards, each containing one-self descripve statement
- Then asked to sort the card in 11 piles ranging from “most like me” to least like me”
- Each item is then assigned a score according to the category in which it was placed
- The normal distribuon eliminates some response biases

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E.g. of Q sort:
- Akeret: the self is not a construct that is uni-dimensional, but is composed of several
dimensions or facets
- 4 dimensions of self-concept:
o Academic values (I study a lot in advance for my exam)
o Interpersonal relaons (I have friend that I can trust)
o Sexual adjustment (I like to kiss on the rst date)
o Emoonal adjustment (people considered me to be a happy person)
- Asked 81 subjects and do 2 Q sorts (self and ideal)
- Measured the discrepancy and correlate the self-acceptance score (correlaon matrices)
- Several fact of the self: muldimensional!
Rogers theory connued!
Self-actualizaon (hypothecal construct)
- Rogers abandoned the view that personality was xed at 5 or 6 but person is always changing
- Self-actualizaon is a basic human drive (grow into a fully funconing individual)
- Move from dependence to independence, and adapt to the environment
- Measure of self-actualizaon:
o The self-actualizaon index (Jones and Crandall): 15 items (4 facets)
Self-acceptance and self-esteem
Acceptance of emoon and freedom of expression of emoon
Trust and responsibility in interpersonal relaonship
- Congruence between self and experience: each person has a dierent self-concept and will
behave in the way that is consistent with that concept
Incongruence: can lead to anxiety
- If the conict I symbolized (awareness)it can be resolved
But if remains unconscious, it can be subcepted: lead to anxiety => problem => defense
mechanisms (denial and distoron)
o Denial: similar to Freudian concept
o Distoron: misperceives the event so it’s congruent with the self-image
- Study have shown: bogus personality that is inconsistent with real personality is poorly
Changing self-concept:
- Can we change the self-concept of person and so, change and predict its behaviour
- E.g. Aronson and Meee
o Subject induced to lower their self-esteem will be more likely to cheat
o Subject induced to raise their self-esteem will be less likely to cheat
o 3 groups (posive, neutral and negave feedback)
o Each group members takes a personality test and receives a false feedback
o All subjects play cards and give them an opportunity to cheat
o People behave in a manner that supports their self-concept (can be manipulated)

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Fully funconing
- Some individuals can accept incongruent experience because they are fully funconing
- The need for posive regard
o Upr: accept incongruence, no defense (parents love no maer what)
o Cpr: want worthy love, distoron and deny in incongruent situaon
- Children with high self-esteem come from families more loving, consistently enforced
demands of child, democrac, behaviour control trough discussion and reasoning
Rogerian view of psychopathology
- Neurosis: cannot assimilate experiences into self-structure (incongruence leads to defense)
- Psychosis: defense fail and behaviors inconsistent with the self-emerge
Therapy client-centred counselling
- Talking trough therapy (one/one), non-direcve, expression of feelings without fear of
censure, therapist is involved! Insight the origins of problems follow by emoonal catharsis
=> total acceptance
- But emphasis on: client (not paent), client-centered (not therapist centered),on counselling
and not therapy
- Condion for a successful CCC:
o Genuineness: honest with the client
o UPR: at the same me
o Empathy
o Non-direcve
- Turner and Vanderlipp: people with small self-ideal discrepancies (= self-acceptance) will be
more adjusted
o 2 groups: highest correlaon (good self-acceptance) vs lowest correlaon
o Peer marks on: organizer, approachable, inuenal, friendly, cooperave, wise, GPA,
o Subject having lower discrepancies between self and ideal(= higher self-acceptance)
are more adjusted, beer GPA but not diering in IQ
- Butler and Haigh: CCC results in decreases in self-ideal discrepancy
o 25 clients: self and ideal Q sorts before and aer therapy
o Pretest post-test control group design
o Maladjustment related to low self-acceptance (CCC can raise it)
- Truax: something else is going on in CCC and causing the client to become “adjusted”
o For him the therapist gives direcon
o Methods: do a content analysis of one successful case of therapy
o Content of verbalizaons
for the therapist: empathy, posive regard, direcveness
for the client: degree of discriminaon learning, ambiguity of statements,
insight, similarity of expression with the therapist, degree of problem
orientaon, degree of catharsis, degree of blocking (defenses types), degree
of anxiety, degree of negave feelings expression
o if Rogers is correct all the correlaon should be zero (constant)
o But, Rogers used verbal condioning, direcveness and the PR is not uncondional
o Greenspoon eect: verbal reinforcers (to elicit plural vs singular nouns)
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