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Psych 1000 - Chapter 10 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10 Notes - Intelligence is a socially constructed concept and not something that has concrete existence - Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively and to deal adaptively with the environment - Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability o Eminence and genius seemed to occur within the families o Convinced that people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more fit for thinking than their less successful counterparts o Biased because he dismissed the fact that more successful people often came from privileged environments o Disfavored because his measures of nervous-system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability (ex. academic and occupational success) - Alfred Binet o Made 2 assumptions about intelligence  Mental abilities develop with age  The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time o Created a test to determine mental age  This idea was furthered by William Stern who created a relative score of intellectual attainment, IQ (intelligence quotient)  IQ = (mental age/chronological age)*100  More useful for children than adults because the basic skills measured by intelligence test are acquired usually by 16, and also some intellectual skills show a decline at advanced ages - Psychometrics Approach – the statistical study of psychological tests o Tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance o Tries to provide a measurement-based map of the mind o Factor Analysis – reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of factors, with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters  A factor allows us to infer the underlying characteristic that presumably accounts for the links among the variables in the  The factor analysis can only identify the clusters but it does not say what they mean o Charles Spearman (1923) proposed that intelligence was a general mental capacity as school grades were almost always positively correlated.  He concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by a g factor, or general intelligence, and partly by whatever special abilities, might be required to perform that task  G is a kind of mental energy which flows into everything a person does and allows them to be consistently good or poor at a variety of tasks  The g factor constitutes the core of intelligence  The g factor is related to educational and job success  Special abilities termed s which is the mental energy specific to a certain task  S is necessary to account for variability across tasks o Thurstone challenged Spearman’s theory and proposed that intelligence depends not on a general factor but rather on seven distinct primary mental abilities  7 Primary Mental Abilities  Spatial visualization  Perceptual speed  Numerical  Verbal meaning  Memory  Word fluency  Reasoning  Abilities are viewed as relatively independent of one another  Many activities require more than one primary ability o Guilford’s Structure of Intellect  Proposed 120 factors of intelligence with several sub factors  Operations (act of thinking)  Contents (terms of thinking, words, symbols)  Products (ideas we come up with)  3D matrix – at least one sub factor from each category is always present o Burt- Vernon Theory of Intelligance  Hierarchical theory – certain abilities are nested within others o Cattell and Horn proposed a new model of intelligence where they broke down Spearman’s g factor into two subtypes  Crystallized intelligence (c ) – the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems. Focuses on the use of long-term memory  Fluid intelligence (f) – the ability to deal with novel problem- solving situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution. Focuses on the use of the central nervous system o Carroll’s three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities – an integrated model of intelligence that establishes three levels of mental skills  General – the g factor  Broad – eight broad intellectual factors arranged in terms of correlation with g  Narrow – 70 highly specific cognitive abilities that feed into the broader second-stratum factors - Cognitive Processes Approaches o Attempts to understand why people vary in their mental skills o Cognitive process theories- explore the specific information- processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability o Sternberg proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence, which addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligent behavior and diverse forms that intelligence can take. It divides the cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behavior  Analytical intelligence – involves the kinds of academically oriented problem-solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests  Practical intelligence – the skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively  Creative intelligence – the mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems  Metacomponents – the higher-order processes used to plan and regulate task performance. These are the fundamental sources of individual differences in fluid intelligence. Intelligent people spend more time framing problems and developing strategies  Performance components – the actual mental processes used to perform a task  Knowledge-acquisition components – allow us to learn from our experiences, store information in memory, and combine new insights with previously acquired information - Jensens Level I & Level II Theory o Argues that existing theories were overly complex o Proposed that all tasks could be measured upon the degree to which they required Level I and Level II abilities o Level I is composed of simple rote memory – no interntional or conscious transformation of input prior to outut o Level II is composed of complex mental abilities – input requires conscious transformation prior to output o Intelligence is based on the types of tasks completed, the higher the complex abilities the higher the intelligence o Questions can be rated  Factual  Comprehension  Higher order - Broader Conceptions of Intelligence: Beyond Mental Capacities o Intelligence may be more broadly conceived as relatively independent intelligences that relate to different adaptive demands o Garner suggested a theory of multiple intelligences  Linguistic intelligence – the ability to use language as well as writers do  Logical-mathematical intelligence – the ability to reason mathematically and logically  Visuospatial intelligence – the ability to solve spatial problems or to succeed in a field such as architecture  Musical intelligence – the ability to perceive pitch and rhythm and to understand and produce music  Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence – the ability to control body movements and skillfully manipulate objects, as demonstrated by a highly skilled athlete, surgeon, dancer, etc.  Interpersonal intelligence – the ability to understand and relate well to others  Intrapersonal intelligence – the ability to understand oneself  Naturalistic intelligence – the ability to detect and understand phenomena in the natural world as a zoologist or meteorologist might  There has also been a suggested ninth form of intelligence: existential intelligence – a
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