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Sociology Second Semester Mid Term.docx

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Western University
Sociology 2169
Stephen Adams

Chapter 5 Unions Organizations and Organizational Change Important Eras in Canadian Labour HistoryUnion activity tends to be more intense in eras of relative prosperity o Expectations rise but remain unmetEconomic downturn recession and depression diminish activity o Workers are in positions of vulnerability and replace ability because of high unemploymentFudge and Tucker Three Periods of Unions o Liberal volunteerism1800s employers held upper hand in defining wages and work conditionsMost union was just in trade and craft anyone else had a very hard time1870s larger movements arise Ninehour movement 12 9 hoursNot successful but caused PM John A Macdonald to pass the Trade Unions Act giving unions the right to exist exempt from conspiracy charges o Industrial volunteerism19001943 marked by the Industrial Disputes Investigations ActLegal privilege to engage in freedom of associationCreated compulsory conciliation and cooling off periodCorporate and government resistance kept control in the power of the employersBetween two world wars activity increased giving way to Winnipeg General Strike May 1919 30000 workers walked of workCanada passed legisliation on crime of sedition creating rebel disturbance and many people were arrestedThan somewhat of war between people and governmentMore and more union activity was engaged but a lot was limited by the IDI Act to be responsible in striking o Industrial Pluralism1944 End of WWIIWar improved the economy and unionship doubledCanada urged businesses to negotiate with employees in 19401944 passed the Privy Council which required employers to recognize union movement and more importantly the right to collective bargainingHowever could only bargain payment and benefits not work conditionsUnions became bureaucratic and their relations with employers became codified and systematic1945 RandThe Rand Formula o Justice Rand ruled that while employees should not be require to join a union they should be required to pay dues All workers would benefit from collective bargainingThis gave finance and security to unionsUnionization has become part of the economic systemHowever there are many workers who are still not in unions or marginalized by them o Coloured men get screwed on a two tier system of bargainingRecent Changes to Unions Public Sector Unions and Canadianization of Unions o Era of stability for unions came to an end in late 1960sRising inflation changing attitudes greater resistance to managerial authority by the young entrance of new groups into the labour force were issues unions had not addressed before o Strike activities became more common and union activity spread to new sectors and jobsWhite collared and middle class employees started to get frustratedIn 1967 Public Service Staff Relations Act was passed letting government workers collectively bargainThis brought many women into unions o Made in Canada unions started to emergeBy 1962 66 of Canadian Union members were in international unionsBy 1995 only 29 wereStarted to split from American unions who did not address similar interestsHelped develop and focus on Canadian issues o Most recently union activity has seen a decline with the liberalization of trade and globalization What do Unions doImprove the economic interests of their members negotiate in wages and benefits working conditions workplace equity democracy and fair treatment o The use collective bargaining to achieve thisUnion member receive a union wage premium better wages o As well as twice as likely to be covered by extended medical dental and life insuranceUnionized workplace have grievance procedures that can be used to have workers fair treatment complains heard o Unionized workers are more likely to use it and many nonunionized workplaces dont even have them in placeAlso have a long history of social unionism o Encouraging activism of members building communitylabour partnerships and working with political parties Union MembershipTells us absolute members in unions o What union membership does not tell us is union densityNumber of union workerstotal employed workersWhen we look at union density we can see that union membership has declined in the past 20 yearsPoints to the trend that more nonunion jobs are available on the market o Most common explanation for this decrease in deindustrialization decrease in unionized manufacturing jobs
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