Sociology 2235 Study Guide - Tender Years Doctrine, Great Transition, Family Wage

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2235
Professor
Page:
of 5
Lec 6Oct. 2
-Historical details about Canada not necessary for exam
Industrial Societies 1900s
Society
-Time of great transition (evolutionary)
-Altered families most dramatically
-Wages, becoming capital society
-Major change: saw employment that was previously either based in the home/part
of the home (ex. Farming) to labour outside the home such as employment at a shop
or factory
-Separation of home and work
-Family wage economy (NOT the same as family based economy)
-Wage paid to male worker (thus expected to support family)
-Family interdependency: no security or employment insurance when sick
-Families worked together in mills and factories (employer or employer would push
for hiring of family members)
-Living next to factory not uncommon
-Social class division emerged
Family
-Unit of consumption more than production
-Breadwinner-homemaker family structure (beginning of this)
-Fertility rate declinedsmaller families
-Economic liabilities
-Less kids more manageable
-Less self-reliant (dependent on wage)
-Ex. Becoming urbanized thus can’t produce own food
-More isolated (moving away)
-More integrated into economy
Marriage
-Later age at marriage (biggest reason: started compulsory education)
-Based on romantic love
-Stressed attraction, respect and affection when choosing partners
-No longer arranged marriages
-Guy walking on side closer to road (Shield women from carriage splashes
and waste that families throw out the window)
-Focus on self development
-Personal happiness important
Women
-Identities centered entirely in families
-Shopping became leisure activity because it was one of the few places women could
go without needing men to escort them
Lec 6Oct. 2
-“Homework” trivialized (housework)
-Responsible for viability of marriages
-Emotional labour: things women do to nurture family such as remembering
birthdays and organizing celebrations
-Gender-specific occupations
-Paid work: maid, teacher, nurse
-Middle class women: running shops
-Hard time pursuing occupations outside norm
-Sexual harassment and assault common
-Unmarried, single, widowed, divorced women had a hard time
-Likely lived in poverty, hard to find work
-Thus single women began moving to cities to work
-No jobs paid enough wage to be independent, eventually had to find partner
-May not want to return to domestic sphere: scary re-entering relationship
-Fall prey to moral temptations
-Unacceptable if not married and pregnant
-Married women supported by husbands
-Money earned was to “supplement” husbands
-Working compromised husband’s position in family (head of the house)
-Seen as husband unable to support you, wife has to go out and earn $
-Working mothers not good for children
-Bad cognitively, psychologically and morally (still in debate)
-Tender years doctrine (had to be with kids for first 7 years)
-Frowned upon if women chose work over looking after kids
Men
-“Head of household”
-Exerted authority over families
-Became breadwinners
-Wage expected to support whole family (tough)
Children
-Parents’ love objects (during hunting and gathering, industrial society, 1950s)
-Extended period of dependency on parents
-Formal education began
-Supervised—feared “idle youth”
-Taught values & habits
-Tasks differentiated by sex
-Boys banged chalkboard erasers
Lec 6Oct. 2
The Golden Age of the Family
Society
-Period of experimentation
-Pro family period (family centered society)
-TV depicted family “ideal”
-Ex. Father Knows Best, Leave it to Beaver
-Better economic conditions than anytime prior to this
-More educational opportunities
-Typically men go to pursue careers later
-Women go to look for husbands
-Real wages grew (money leftover from expenses)
-Takes into account inflation of costs of things
-Little variation by class, race or ethnic groups in communities
-Few complicated choices for parents or children
-Not much to worry about, uneventful (enjoying post war peace)
-Optimistic outlook for future
-Predictable futures
-Families moved out to suburbs
-Relied on automobiles
-Consumer spending increased dramatically
-Automatic washers, dishwashers, vacuums produced at this time
-Also raised expectation of women in the homes
Date With Your Family Documentary
What’s expected of families
-Women in family dress more “charmingly” at dinner for men after their long day at
work
-Sons clean up themselves for dinner (punctuality stressed: must not be late for
dinner)
-Daughter sets dinner table
-Create relaxing environment for father
-Son holds out chair for younger brother and mother, father for daughter
-Saying grace at mealtime
-Pleasant dinner environment stressed (unemotional)
-Older children help younger olds and teach table manners
-Father must be served and mother must start eating before everyone else can
-Must be your best self
-Older brother helps younger brother
-Family was haven in a hostile world
-Strong romantic view of family
-Most families owned homes (only needed 15% of income)
-People put emotional and financial energy into nuclear families

Document Summary

Wage paid to male worker (thus expected to support family) Historical details about canada not necessary for exam. Major change: saw employment that was previously either based in the home/part of the home (ex. Farming) to labour outside the home such as employment at a shop or factory. Family wage economy (not the same as family based economy) Family interdependency: no security or employment insurance when sick. Families worked together in mills and factories (employer or employer would push for hiring of family members) Later age at marriage (biggest reason: started compulsory education) Stressed attraction, respect and affection when choosing partners. Guy walking on side closer to road (shield women from carriage splashes and waste that families throw out the window) Shopping became leisure activity because it was one of the few places women could go without needing men to escort them. Emotional labour: things women do to nurture family such as remembering birthdays and organizing celebrations.