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Sociology 2240E Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Ethnocentrism


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2240E
Professor
Charles Levine
Study Guide
Quiz

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Chapter 1: What is sociology?
Key Terms
Conflict theory- the sociological model that portrays society as marked by competition
and/or exploitation. Its three major concepts are power, disharmony, and revolution.
Dysfunctions – the occasional minor, temporary disruptions in social life, as defined by
functionalists
Equilibrium- envisioned by functionalist sociologists as the normal state of society,
marked by interdependence of parts and by harmony and consensus
Functionalism- (A) applied to culture, the theoretical perspective that explains cultural
elements by showing how they contribute to societal stability; (B) the sociological model
that portrays society as harmonious and as based on consensus. Its three major concepts
are function, equilibrium, and development.
Learning theory – the mircosociological argument that individuals act and interact based
on their past history of associations, rewards, and punishments, and observations of and
instructions from others.
Rational choice theory- the idea that individuals make choices based on careful cost-
benefit considerations, with the intention of maximizing benefits of predictability in the
outcomes of their actions.
Social facts – social sources or causes of behaviour; used by sociologists to explain rates
of behaviour in groups as opposed to individual behaviour
Symbolic internationalism – the microsociological perspective that assumes that
individuals act and interact on the basis of symbolically encoded information.

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Chapter 2: research methods
Key terms
Axiomatic logic – the making of connecting links between related statements for
deriving hypotheses
Cluster sampling –a series of random samples taken in uints of decreasing size, such as
census tracts, then streets, then houses, then residents
Content analysis – a method of analysis that extracts themes from communications,
including letters, books, and newspapers
Control group –the group of subjects in an experiment that is not exposed to the
independent variable
Control variables – variables included in a model of behavior that are neither
independent nor dependent variables. They are controlled or held constant to check on
apparent relationships between independnt and dependnt variables
Correlation – not to be confused with cause, it is changes in one variable that coincide
with changes in another variable
Cross-sectional research – the type of research that takes place at one point in time as
opposed to longitudinal research, which can detect change and demonstrate cause
because it takes place over a period of time
Deductive logic- the derivation of a specific statement from a set of more general
statements
Dependant variable- the effect in a causal statement
Experimental group- the group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the
independent variable, as opposed to the control group, which is not exposed.
External validity- the ability to generalize research results beyond the artificial
laboratory experimental situation to the real world
Grounded theory-explanations that arise from the data collected and that are thus
grounded in reality rather than in deductive logic
Hypothesis- a statement of presumed relationship between two or more variables
Independent variable – the cause in a casual statement
Inductive logic- the construction of a generalization from a set of specific statements.
Longitudinal research- research done over time, often by participant observers
Operational definition- description of the actual procedures used to measure a
theoretical concept, as in I.Q. scores being an operational definition of intelligence
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Participant observation- a research strategy whereby a researcher becomes a member of
a group to study it, and group members are aware that they are being observed.
Positivism- the application of natural science research methods to social science
Primary versus secondary sources- the former are records produced by contemporaries
of an event; the latter are interpretations of primary sources made by others not
immediately present at the event.
Quota sample – a selection of people that matches the sample to the population on the
basis of certain selected characteristics.
Random sample – a sample in which every member of the population is eligible for
inclusion and individuals are selected by chance
Reliability- the degree to which repeated measurements of the same variable, using the
same or equivalent instruments, are equal
Replication – repeating a research project in attempt to verify earlier findings
Secondary analysis – the examination by a researcher of someone elses data
Spurious relationship – the appearance that two variables are in a casual relationship,
when in fact each is an effect of a common third variable
Theory- a set of interrelated statements or propositions about a particular subject matter
Triangulation – the application of several research methods to the same topic in the hope
that the weakness of any one method may be compensated for by the strengths of others
Validity – the degree to which a measure actually measures what it claims to be
Variable – a characteristic, such as income or religion, that takes on different values
among different individuals or groups. Causes are generally called independent variables,
and effects are usually called dependant variables.
Verstehen – the understanding of behaviour as opposed to the predicting of behaviour
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