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Sociology 1020 notes.docx

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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

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Sociology 1020- Intro to Sociology: A Canadian Focus Chapter 1- What is Sociology? Sociology= study of social behaviour and relationships Emergence of Sociology  Systematic study of social behaviour in human societies  August Compte 1838  “A new way of looking at the world”  Focuses on patterned group behaviour  Positivism  Different way of looking at things What is a Theory? (binoculars)  Psychology is internal while Sociology is external  Statement of how and why certain facts are related  People act in highly predictable ways  Based on theoretical paradigms (hand exercise)  Examines effects of society and group membership on behaviour Theoretical Paradigms  Looks at perceptions and social 1) Structural Functionalism environment 2) Conflict Theory  Society guides our actions and shapes 3) Symbolic Interactionism our values 4) Feminism  Peter Berger “To see the general in the particular”= general patterns in Structural Functionalism individuals  We belong to different categories  Father of SF is Emile Durkheim, one gender, age, ethnicity, status of the first sociologists  Society= social system The Sociological Imagination  Explains cultural elements by showing how they contribute to  Wright Mills societal stability  We see the world through the lens of  It’s a macro level orientation (big our own experiences picture)  To understand behaviours you need  Shows how broad patterns shape three levels of analysis society as a whole  Society binds people together for Three goals of Sociology survival of society 1) Describe the social world  Change in one structure/ 2) Explain how and why institutionchange in others disruptive 3) Critique existing social arrangements  Rapid social change suicide Three Levels of Analysis  System should be working together to promote solidarity  Anthony Giddens Structuration 1) Biography- human agency= level of analysis Theory 2) Mileu- gemeinschaft= sense of belonging (where you spend your Society’s four needs for survival time) 3) History- society/structures= a given 1) Order society 2) Stability 3) Reproduction 4) Work  Dominant group vs. minority group relations Evolving Societies Capitalism= alienates workers in four ways Change from mechanical solidarityorganic from… solidarity 1) Act of working- no say in production Two functions: 2) Products of work- no ownership 3) Other workers- competition 1) Manifest Functions- conscious 4) Human potential- same job, tedious functions of institutions, involves intended consequences of an aspect Terms of society 2) Latent Functions- unconscious or  Alienation= experience of isolation unintended functions that may reflect resulting from powerlessness hidden purposes of an institution A conflictive perspective- Marxism Terms:  Karl Marx  Institutions= subsystems of enduring  “History of all hitherto existing patterns of social relationships society is the history of class  Structure= framework that holds struggle.” society together  Economic processes/ modes of  Equilibrium= natural state of society productiondetermine all processes  Eufunction= positive benefit for and social change society maintaining equilibrium  Basis for other forms of  Dysfunction= element of society that inequalityownership over means of may disrupt a social system or reduce production its stability  Class= a social category based on  Critique= ignores inequalities of ownership and control over means of social class, race and gender and production focuses on the stability at the expense  Two classes: Bourgeoisie (owners of of conflict capital) dominate Proletariat (workers sell labour) Structural Functionalism Terms Cont’d  Class conflict based on class consciousnessclasses have  Functional Interdependence= being different interests bonded together because we need each other  Revolution= eliminates inequalities  Social Institutions= society’s  Division of labour= who does what= subsystems, organized to meet basic key to change is expanding it  Detail division of labour= everyone is human needs  False consciousness= explanations of doing a different job social problems grounded in an  Anomie= not knowing what to do because society is changing so fast individuals shortcomings Symbolic Interactionism Conflict Theory  Views society as an area of inequality  W.I. Thomas- “what we define as real, is real in its consequences.” that generates conflict and social  Society arises as a shared reality change  Macro oriented paradigm  Symbol= something that meaningfully represents something else  Society= structured in ways to benefit  Most interaction is symbolic a few at the expense of the majority  Social inequality factors such as  Father of this theory, Max Weber and German sociologist race, gender, sex, class, age  **Verstehen**= to understand  Early 19 century  Idealism fascinated him  Moral crusaders improve society  No single factor determines society of  Temperance movement individuals  Woman’s suffrage Symbolic Interactionism Cont’d Liberal Feminism…  Social conflict may originate in  Early 60’s values, statuses and ideas  Women gain equality via access to  Weber is a pluralist conflict theorist education and jobs  He doesn’t disagree w Marx, eco system= important however there’s Radical Feminism… many more factors!  Beliefs and values = key to  Patriarchy- universal cause of understand societies women’s oppression  Women organize separate from men  Protestant ethic and rise of capitalism (1904) to protect their interests  Protestants breakaway sect from Socialist Feminism… catholic church because they found it to be excessive  Religious ideas brought about eco  Gender inequalities based on economic factors, influenced by class change in Europe inequalities  Ruling classes use beliefs to  Women organize with men of the legitimate their position so other same class to solve problems of classes will cooperate with their gender inequality subordination  Rationalization of society= change Common Characteristics of Feminism… from tradition rationality/ efficiency (cake mix from scratch or  Gender inequalities NOT biologically box) determined but rather socially constructed Terms  Patriarchy present in nearly all societies  Learning theory= argument that individuals act and interact based on  Transnational Feminism their past history of associations, rewards, punishments, observations and instructions from others  Rational choice theory= idea that individuals make choices based on careful cost- benefit considerations, with intention of maximizing benefits while minimizing the costs Feminism: Feminism= the study of women’s lives Macroconstraints and forms of resistance in women’s lives Microreproduction of gender through language and emotion management Material Feminism…  Validity= degree to which they actually measure what they claim  Reliability= consistency, wont fluctuate over time or w person using them Chapter 2- Research Methods  Sampling= selecting a subset from the population to study  Random sample= sampling done by Quantitative and Qualitative Methods: chance Durkheim positivism quantitative  Cluster sampling= randomly methods sampling from larger to medium to smaller within the large sample Positivism= methods from the natural  Quota sampling= not by chance but sciences appropriately adapted to social matched proportionately sciences  Analysis= analyzing the data after obtained Quantitative= counting and precise  Control variables= not dependant or measurement of observable behaviour, independent but controlled limited number of variables and a prediction  Involvement= researchers interacting with those they study Weber participant observation  Interpretations= needs researchers qualitative methods perspective Participant observation= observe behaviour,  Inductive logic= specific factsgeneral statements ask them the meaning of their behaviour  Grounded theory= theory rooted in Qualitative= interviews, surveys, and arising from their data questionnaires  Replication= repeating of a study  Cross sectional research= when data Terms: on independent and dependant variables are collected at same time  Theory= basic or abstract approach  Correlations= changes in one to subject matter variable influencing change in  Variable= takes on different values another variable for different groups  Spurious relationships= when it is  Hypothesis= statement of a through a third variable presumed relationship b/w two or  Longitudinal research= research more variables done over time  Independent variable= cause  Triangulation= using different  Dependant variable= effect methods on one topic w the hopes  Axiomatic logic= making connecting the weaknesses of one will be links b/w related theoretical benefited by the strengths of another statements  Primary sources= records produced  Deductive logic= taking a specific at the time (eyewitness, official statement from a more general records) statement
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