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Sociology 2140
Gale Cassidy

Social Problems 9/19/2013 4:55:00 AM Campaign 2000 began in 1985, give Canada 15 years to eradicate child poverty Differing opinions- solution or problem Dr. Kevorkian known as Dr. Death helped people with assisted suicide. He was charged many times and spent some time in jail. Euthanasia and affirmative action Euthanasia: Forces individuals to get certain “status” Affirmative action (Solution): Reverse years of discrimination. Able to get in professional schools Situations depend on Historical Context: Example: New child labor laws were inspired by the industrial revolution when young children were forced to work in unsafe conditions and were chained to machines to ensure they would not run away. Cultural Context: Meaning something in Canada may be acceptable but in another part of the world it may not be or vice versa Values and Belief: These are beliefs & values that one personally holds Social problems are: 1. Conditions affecting the quality of life or cherished values 2. Patterns of behavior warranting public concern and collective action 3. Discrepancies between ideas and achievement Ex. Charter of rights and freedoms, “Everyone is entitled to live where you want etc,” However this isn’t always proven true. (CONTRADICITNG) Still a lot of discrimination today. We have an ideal that is not reality. A theme common in social problems is disadvantage groups. 4 Conditions must be met to be considered a social problem 1. Must be perceived as a social problem publically, people must be actively engaged. (Public attention) (Collective movement) 2. Gap between social ideals and social reality th Ex. Temperance movement, In the 20 century alcohol abuse was causing damage to society. 3. Involve a significant portion of the population *National attention 4. Capable of solving through collective action No solution=No problem Ex. Bureaucracy Example of social conditions - Aging - Health Care - Unemployment - Education - Crime - Pollution - Drug abuse Factors 1. People affected by a common condition are influential or powerful Example: Drugs disturbing rich neighborhoods 2. Condition affects a large segment of society 3.There is a rapid increase in the number of people affected (Leads to public outcry) The government uses this tactic to get more funds Depending what side you are on this could be used in different ways 4. Mass media gives attention to condition Ex. Child obesity 5. Ideology (personal) * The 4 conditions as well as the 5 factors must be met Why study social problems? 1. Understand social forces that shape our lives (Personal and Societal level) 2. Gain new insights into ourselves and connections between our world and other people 3. To make more effective decisions (plan of action) Common sense does not work when looking at sociological issues. Must use a scientific approach, don’t make assumptions. Sociological imagination: Ability to see relationships between individual experiences and the larger society. “Sociological imagination is needed to move from the personal to the bigger picture” (C. Wright Mills, 1959). Known as the father of sociology Private trouble – Public Issue C. Wright Mills Ex. Unemployment Relationship between personal unemployment & technological change and economic cycles that caused it. It is bigger than a person who is unemployed. A “quality of mind” that allows one to grasp,” history and biography and the relation between the 2 within society. Main elements of the Sociological Imagination 1. Viewing social world from other perspectives (willingness) 2. Focusing on social, economic and historical circumstances 3. Question structural arrangements 4. Seeing solutions in the changing structure of society People are not the problem it is the structure of society Analysis (2 Levels) Micro: Small individuals in small groups, personal level Macro: Big (Societal level) Structural functionalist *Historical analysis brings the 2 together Theories of social problems can be: Biological - Hormonal - Neurological - Genes - Physiological Psychological - Cognitive - Affective process - Mental - Individual - “Social 3 mental forces” Sociological - Group relations - Culture - Patterns Structural Functionalist (Macro) Believe: Society will be functional when every institution works together Everyone in society has a role to play Social problems are caused when institutions do not fulfill roles Social institutions, for example, the economy, education, family and religion Their solution: Strengthen social norms and slow pace of change (Hate dysfunction) Criticisms: Structural functionalist ignore change, inequality and conflict Conflict Theorist (Macro) Focus on the inequalities of society such as exploitation of workers and the division between the bourgeoisie and the proletariats Bourgeoisie- Uppers class, “haves” Proletariat- Working class, “have nots” Constant struggle to obtain more, heavily concerned with the economy, assets, power and money Solution: Abolish class difference, let workers have more control in the work place Criticisms: Overemphasizes economic inequality, does not touch upon “the family” Symbolic Interactionism (Micro) Focuses on small group interactions They coined labeling theory: If a person is label as a certain thing, they start to act like what their label suggests *Moral entrepreneurs extend their own beliefs onto social rules and norms * Violators are labeled as deviant which in turn becomes a social problem Solution: Reframe what are considered deviations Criticisms: Lacks detailed connection between micro and macro level perspectives, only focuses on micro Question What problem is it Results of actions taken people have done something as a result Argument: People have problems Two different beliefs 1. Society’s problems 2. Someone is in poverty due to the results of their own actions Results of people identifying people as a problem Argument: People are problems (Up to them to fix it) Person blame vs System blame Person blame: Problem with the person System blame: Problem with the system Poverty and Inequality 9/19/2013 4:55:00 AM To survive on the streets you need 2000 dollars in cash, and access many additional services (shelters, food banks) Relative poverty: Relative to people around you Objective poverty: Subjective poverty: You may feel very poor Human development Index: Developed in 1997 by the United nations. Focuses on quality of live. -Psychological distress -Quality of health care -Education -Unemployment 1. Deprivation of a long healthy life (Life expectancy) High income directly correlated o life expectancy 2. Deprivation of knowledge- literacy 3. Deprivation of decent living standards- GDP (health care, education) HPI-2: Industrialized countries -higher expectations, higher numbers but measures the same thing as HDI For developing countries Longevity: Probably of not surviving to 40 Literacy rate Decent standard of living: % w/o access to safe water %w/o access to heath services % of children under 5 yrs underweight For developed countries Longevity: Probability of not surviving to 60 Adult functional literacy rate: literate enough to function in society (write a letter) %Living below the poverty life (50% od median disposable income) Have and have nots 1 billion live in countries where they have what they need for a long quality of live 1/6 of the worlds population does not have much hope 1 billion live in countries with little 4 billion live in countries where they have hope of getting what they need Canada is at 1.7 kids USA is at 2.1 kids Russia’s population will decrease China is down to 3.3 or 3.1 kids use to be 6. Something (cut in half) Chinese like when they have sons because sons look after their parents when they grow old India is going to surpass china for the largest population on the world Millennium goals: Developed to look at issues around the world In 2000 the goals were created and they were meant to be achieved by 2015 They were reasonable goals, and we are not doing very well The millennium goals: dream or reality * movie clip MDG: agreed by 189 nations? Shared vision among multiple nations Rich and poor countries both have to contributed Increase foreign aid to poor countries Pursued tax payers to dig deeper into their pockets Millennium goals Target 1: Eradicated extreme poverty and hunger (Cutting that number in half) (Looking at people who live on less than a dollar a day) Target 2: Achieve universal primary education, more than just learning to read or write. In India children teach themselves (street kids, those hwo know more are teaching those who know less). (Foy boys and girls) Teachers are teaching the kids but also they are becoming leaders in the community Target 3: Promote gender equality and empowering women 1.The best thing you can do is to reduce fertility 2.Increase health measure, fewer kids dying before the age of 1, fewer mothers dying 3.More liking to educated their girls 4. They become more productive in their communities Wife inheritance: Widows passed out to new men when their husbands die (In the husbands family) (Usually happened in India) Target 4: Reduce child mortality 2/3 (Children dying under the age of 5) Infancy mortality is under the age of 1 Target 5: Improve maternal mortality (Reduced by 3 quarters) Reproductive health Target 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS/ Milleara and other diseases (Better health leads to better wealth) ARV’s can help African children with AIDS but poor people in Africa can’t afford them Target 7: Ensure environment sustainability Very few countries are promoting urbanization (China is) Half the number of people with a poor water source Slums of hope: most are slums of hope, willingness of slums residences, they just need a few things (sanitation) Slums of despair Target 8: Global partnership of development (Everyone to get on board and work together) Jamaica can’t keep up with subsidizes milk from Netherlands and the US Ethiopia can’t get a fair price for their coffee beans Responsible of the rich world is help poorer nations Since 9/11 instead of development rich countries have been focused on defense 1000 billion dollars on defense is spent Global village: How we are much more connected to people around the world. (Not really true) Global effort, quantify their goals Millennium development goals 2009 Progress chart Dark green met target or close to it Medium green: sufficient progress Light green/ yellow not much progress, probably won’t meet goal Red: no progress, gotten worse *Many goals are not going to be met, however some progress Out of poverty Paul polka on practical problem solving (Created IDE) You must listen to the people themselves He has 12 steps to help people get out of poverty What works when tradition ways don’t 2 important questions What makes poor people poor and what can they do about it? 1.Go to where the action is 2.Talk to the people and listen 3. Know the specific context 4. Think and act big 5. Think like a child 6. See and do the obvious 7.If someone invented it already you don’t have to do it 8. Measureable impacts 9. Designs to specific price targets 10. Follow practical three year plans 11. Continue to learn form your customers 12. Don’t be distracted by what other people say Local Poverty 9/19/2013 4:55:00 AM Social Safety Net Norway is the happiest with their country Mike Harris Premiere of Ontario created the common sense revolution in 1996 implemented a lot of changes Prior to the revolution was GTW (General welfare act) give funds to singles and families. You had to go to work, you had to show that you were trying to get a job Also the FBA: Family benefit act it was commonly called mother allowance single parent families you weren’t expected to get a job Could stay on that till your kids turned 16 More generous than GTW Could go back to post secondary school GWA and FBA turned into OW (Ontario works) You can’t go to post secondary now “shortest route to employment” Welfare system is short sited You can only go back to get your high school degree “New beginnings” 3 month program Sexism & Gender Inequality 9/19/2013 4:55:00 AM Women are half the population Working two thirds of the worlds working two thirds Male and female intersex “why can’t they just be” our society likes divisions they need straight cut answers either female or male Gender male needs to be masculine and females need to be feminine Women have more leeway with gender rules an example of this tomboys Gender is how you act in the world Gender is not static it is socially constructed, determined by our environment we live in Sex isn’t necessarily static either people have changed their sexual body parts “Sex between your ears is different then the sex between your legs” Seen as a medical issue Ideas of masculinity and femininity Different among cultures Differ in historical periods: men would wear high heels back in the day and that was seen as masculine. If women wore pants back in the day it was seen as masculine. Men getting piercings and wearing pink shirts. Differ in class: Rules are stricter if you are well off. The lower social classes don’t have to be so proper. Gender roles Learned in many different ways Agents of socialization: Parents are the first people who socialize us “Man box” if you step outside of it, people will put you back into place Everyone judges your behavior so it has to be gender appreciate in public Women have a lot more leniency Gender inequality Rooted in ideas that people hold about gender- how a woman or man is expected to act in society “If a man does this he is assertive, if a women does it she’s bitchy” Never dealt with this before, started to happen when women entered the work place Women try to act like men in the work place North America is a lot more egalitarian than more places Women get judged in the work place but men get judge on their parenting skills because of the negative stereotypes associated with their gender Gender inequality is a major issue that is holding our society back “The F-word” Doc zone video Women are 53 percent of the population Only 1 percent of the world’s wealth is held by women Feminism is not about women getting ahead but about equality More equality in a relationship the better the relationship Feminists have been around since the 1920’s Women who care about what happens to women People who believe that women should have equal opportunities as men National women’s day march 8th since 1911? Half the sky but 11 percent of cooperate boards Half jobs in the workforce but make 20 percent less then men First wave Suffrage movement (Canada) 1918, American 1920 right to vote Women took over the jobs when men went to war They were not seen as people 1918 women revealed their knees on the beach The second wave (60’s) The women did the work Women make policy not coffee Women pushed for change Equal pay Stereotypes Goals for 60’s and 70’s Enter women in the workplace Introduction of the birth control pill Betty ferdand white middle class women people listened to her in the 1970’s/1980’s the media was advertising negative stories about women such as they won’t get married if they are college educated The beauty myth (creating myths to put women in the their place) Unattainable beauty myth whit middle class The third wave Race, gender, social class 1990’s rock, hip hop orientated Pressure on women to have the perfect career and family balance Germiane Greer? Feminist Strong sexy women role models: Lara croft (Sexual power) “Matrix of oppression” 7 out of every 8 stay at home parents are women GDP: Economic strength of a nation, doesn’t take in account of the unpaid work. Largest sector in the economy is unpaid work money, media, electric process? Nelly mcglong: Fought for women to be seen as people in Canada “Name it, change it” Scandinavian countries, Sweden and Norway have the highest amount of women in politics Canada is behind in the US on how we treat our women Christian Hoff summer She was paid by the right wing to be a “fake feminists” Women have not been educating the newer generations “The matrix of oppression” people who are oppressed because of their class, sexual orientation, age , gender th 2005 the gender gap, Canada was in 7 place and then fell to 20 Iceland has the only lesbian leader John stossel (Video) Women earn less for the same work women make 25 percent less Higher paying jobs have less flexibility, longer hours etc Implemented a new law in Ontario 20 years ago Bank tellers use to be men, now it is mostly female and thus the wages have decrease Men are only bank tellers to make their way up In egalitarian couples it usually is 2 thirds women one third men for unpaid work “Opportunity cost” how much could she be earning if she was in the workplace Sexism, strength, and dominance masculinity in Disney Films (VIDEO WATCH AT HOME *) Men are less resilient than women, guys fall in love quicker, guys are more upset when girls break up with them Guest lecture 9/19/2013 4:55:00 AM Street connection: closing down because of lack of funding small organization, 160 thousand dollars a year 6 thousands kids of year (offers services) Drop in center, you can get food, a shower, and toiletries as well as counseling Executive director he was trained for nine years Mitch living on the streets since he was 16 Inequality based on Sexual orientation 9/19/2013 4:55:00 AM Sociology has a heterosexist bias - Research questions: Assume everyone is straight, leads to homophobia “Where does your husband work?” Reframe the question to be more inclusive. Filling out forms that say mother and farther now replaced with parents. - Methodology: Framed around women marrying a man - Language used In sociology homosexuality was talked abut in deviance studies Gays and lesbians are underrepresented and they are over generalize That not good experimental research Some changes have been made, sociology has been evolving Homosexuality Has been around forever Two spirited people: Thought to be special can have sex with males and females. They had two sprits, they were seen as special. They were perceived to have generosity and luck valued in their society. “Native communities” Aboriginals have polygamous marriages, different gender rules, women active in trading, relationships with the same sex In Canada homosexuality became a term until 1850 - Beginning of Canada confederation 1867 punishable with 14 years in jails until Trudeau in 1969 Decriminalized it - Trudeau said law had no place in peoples bedrooms - 1969 by exempting by prosecution if over 21 and has to been done in private Decriminalized but not accepted - More open to common law relationships now, same sex has gained more acceptance - 1996 most provinces legislated against discrimination (major institutions) not everyone was in board - Tough for people to be gay because they could lose their house and job if people found out they were gay The more people are out the more hostility they are facing. There has been a backlash, more crimes. They are everywhere now we cant avoid they are there so people against homosexuality are angry. In US sodomy and same sex marriage is still seen as a crime George bush in 2003 states were fighting for same sex marriage Fighting for the right to marry In California they were allowed to get married but then it was revoked Arguments against same sex marriage they don’t make sense - Cant have kids - Lacking one sex as a role model “Don’t ask don’t tell” in the army attempts to change that Toronto and Vancouver police force are recruiting gay officers, anti gay behavior is not tolerated Kids raised in same sex are psychologically better off because they really want children and they do a good job raising them More educated you are the less likely you are to be racist, sexist and homophobic Anti Gay, Hate Crimes A&E Documentary - Matthew Shepard was a young man in university in the states and he was gay - A couple of guys beat him up and tied him up to a fence post - A black man in the same area was tied behind a pickup truck and was left for dead - He put the violence towards gay and lesbians in the limelight Incidents in London like this The national crimes rates are down but hate crimes are increasing “Holy war” against homosexuality October 6 TH1998, 19 when he died Shepard demonstrated that homosexuality was a national problem Edward Kenney wrote a speech on hate crimes Hate crimes are acts of terrorisms affecting not only the victim but everyone Walker died of hate crimes Bias crimes are usually done in close proximity, knife, beating Gay panic: is what people try to use as a defensive strategy More and more gays are coming out and people and fighting for rights the more they are getting bashed Homosexuality is the less permissible hate crime one third of gay people try to commit suicide each year gay students skip class 5 times more
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