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Everything for 1st Midterm Notes are very organized and detailed. Some are of the lecture slides, others are from class disscussion. Clear and easy to understand. Very Helpful :)

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Anne- Marie Colpron

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Friday January 7 , 2011 Anthropology (Ancient Greek) - Anthropo- human being - Logy- science o Science of the human being Comparative Discipline - Anthropology is not focused on Western civilization o It studies humans in diversity - What it means to be “human” in all parts of the world (a human at large) - Studies what it means to be human o Diachronically- over time o Synchronically- across space o Basically studying humans in the broadest sense possible 4 Subfields of Anthropology - Archaeology o Study human past through the analysis of material remains - Biological Anthropology o Studies the biological evolution of humans o 2 Subfields  Primatology- studies primates because it is the closest living relative to humans  Paleoanthropology- studies fossilized bones of our early ancestors - Linguistic Anthropology o Studies the relationship between language and culture o Language is a universal feature in societies, but varies between different groups  Language is not instinctive (you are not born knowing a language, it must be learned)  Language is learned in a social/cultural group, depending on what language is learned, it affects how you see the world Socio- Cultural Anthropology (SCA) - “focuses on learned behaviours and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society” (p.10) - Methodology o Fieldwork- being immersed for a long period of time in other people’s everyday life o Participant Observation- getting involved in the everyday routine of people to observe culture Difference Between Anthropology and Sociology Comparative Approach- anthropology compares different cultural settings (not western focused) Methodology- through field work and observation anthropologists get immersed into people’s everyday life to try and understand their view of life from the inside Ways to gather Information - Qualitative o Follow few people and go in depth, ge t a better ‘quality’ of information - Quantitative o Follow a large number to get a consensus and an approximate idea of the way of life, cannot go into detail Ethnography - A form of anthropological writing that describes the main social practices and ideas of a specific group of people Ethnology - The science of population - Comparative study of different cultural groups - A synonym for socio-cultural anthropology Holist Approach - Global Approach o All aspects of culture are interrelated to each aspect of culture (religion, politics, economics, art, etc.) cannot be studied without reference to the culture as a whole Culture - Edward Tylor (classic definition) o Culture is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired as a member of society” Enculturation - The process by which we learn a culture and we acquire the values and behaviours proper to that of culture Cultural determinism - Influences culture, does not determine it - Culture greatly affects who you are and how you react Ethnocentrism - Judging other people and their culture from one’s own cultural standards - We only realize we have a culture when confided by another culture - Our culture is our point of reference Cultural Relativism - “cultural relativism involves understanding another culture in its own terms sympathetically enough so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living - We have to understand other cultures, not necessarily agree with them th Wednesday January 12 , 2011 Anthropology is all about resisting the ethnocentric impulse: - By recalling “that if what we observe appears to be odd or irrational” By studying other cultures, we become aware of our own. Field work makes us realize: - “the more familiar the strange becomes, the more and more strange the familiar will appear” Anthropology opens us to other possible ways of being human. It forces us to question our common sense assumptions in which we are comfortable. Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) - Initiated field work and participant observation - Stayed 2 years among the Trobriand - Learned the language - Interacted in their everyday life - Holism -> interested in all aspects of life Anthropologists & Fieldwork - Take notes/ pictures - Audio and video recordings o 19 Century Anthropology  Arm Chair Anthropologist  Just read about culture, don’t go and experience it  Followed evolutionist theories  They worked with materials collected by others (i.e. missionaries, traders, explorers, colonial officials) o Their work is biased towards Western culture  Problems: o Incomplete and decontextualized information o Focus on the sensationalist & spectacular o Evolution of the 19 Century  Theory that stipulates that different groups had pass through the same stages of cultural evolution  Different social status is aligned in a single line that moves from the most primitive to most civilized  Scientists used to put groups on a line depending on how evolved/developed they are  This method is very ethnocentric and doesn’t happen today Primitive Civilized Culture Shock - Difficulty people have adjusting to a new culture that differs from their own o 1 concern: how to live nd o 2 concern: how do you interact Cultural Misunderstandings (p.34) - “it is this distance between 2 worlds of experience that is exactly the problem that ethnographic research is designed to locate and resolve” Wednesday January 19 , 2011 Film: Babakiueria - How do you explain the title of the film? - How is the film a satirical role-reversal of colonization? - How does the film make us critically think of the Native situation in Canada - “the government knows what’s best”- paternalistic, a black man represented the whites in the movie Colonialism - The political control over another country occupying it with settlers and exploiting it economically - Officially started in 1492 (the discovery of America) - Historical p
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