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BU 288 Midterm #1

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Roopa Reddy

BU 288 Midterm #1 Chapter 1 - OB and Management What is OB? The study of the people side of organizations The Rigor of OB OB looks at consistencies - What is common about behavior, and helps predictability? OB looks beyond commons sense - Systematic study, based on scientific evidence o Evidence-based management (EBM) OB has few absolutes - Few, if any, simple and universal principles that explain OB OB takes a contingency Approach - Considers behavior in context Organization Behavior Levels Individual Outcomes - Performance - Absenteeism - Turnover - Attitudes-withdrawal/commitments Group Level Outcomes - Norms & Identity - Cohesion - Performance - Group Satisfaction Organizational Outcomes - Efficiency & Effectiveness - Financial performance - Innovation - Customer/Market Measures - Culture, etc. Research in OB - The nature of OB evidence - Research in the social sciences o Ask a question or identify a problem o Review the existing ‘literature’ o Suggest a hypothesis o Design research o Data collection and analyses o Interpretation and rational (telling a story) Research Methods in OB Field Studies - Date collected on site - Investigation generally involves observation of individuals and groups Surveys - Data collected through questions - Surveys usually conducted by phones, email, interview, or online Laboratory Studies - Data collected in laboratory settings - Sometimes difficult to generalize the findings to everyday settings Case Studies - Data collected through and in-depth investigation or an individual or a group over time - Methods used include direction observation, interviews, and document research Meta-analyses - Data collected by combining and analyzing the findings of multiple studies - Method permits stronger conclusions about hypothesis More on Research Research hypotheses have 1. Independent variables 2. Dependent variables 3. Mediating variables 4. Moderating variables Reliable and Valid Reliable means the results are consistent - Across subjects - Across time (same subject) - In different situations - In the same situation Valid means that you are measuring what you think you are measuring - The theory (construct) - Using different approaches (convergent) - That your aren’t measuring something else (discriminant) - That it works in other cases (external) - That it works outside the lab (ecological) Internal Validity - Selection of participants - Testing - Instrumentation - Statistical artifact (regression to mean) - History - Maturation - Mortality Laboratory Experiments Good because - Controlled setting rules out possible other explanations - You can manipulate (change) the independent variable and that helps you prove causation Bad because - Might not have external validity, i.e., doesn’t really hold in real life situations 1. Best use random assignment 2. Have control groups 3. The experiments are conducted by someone who doesn’t know what the hypothesis is Chapter 2 - Personality and Learning Personality What is Personality? - The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that distinguish one person from another - Personality influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment and how he or she feels, thinks, and behaves - Determined by genetic predispositions and one’s experiences Personality and OB - 70% of organizations today use personality testing in selection - The role of personality in organizational behavior has been debated in what is known as the “person-situation debate” The three approaches 1. The dispositional approach 2. The situational approach 3. The interactionist approach The Dispositional Approach - Behavior is driven by individual dispositions and personality - Individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways based on their personality The Situational Approach - Behavior is driven by characteristics of the organizational setting (e.g. rewards and punishments) The Interactionist Approach - Behavior is driven by both dispositions and the situation (i.e personality and work setting together) Situational Strength Strong vs. Weak Situation - Strong situation: clearly defined roles, strong behavioral norms, high predictability by limiting the number of behavioral patterns that are appropriate o Personality is less influential - Weak situation: Loosely defined roles and rules, few external constrains on individuals o Personality has strongest effect in weak situation Five-Factor Model of Personality “CANOE” personality theory (Big-Five) - Conscientiousness - Agreeableness - Neuroticism/Emotional stability - Openness to experience - Extraversion FFM: structure replicates across many cultures C A N O E Conscientiousne Agreeable Neuroticism Openness E
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