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OB Exam Review

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Amy Christie

Research Techniques: 1) Observation a) Direct Observation b) Participant Observation 2) Correlation - examines relationships without introducing change - surveys, interviews, existing data 3) Experimentation - variable is manipulated/changed under controlled conditions - changing an object to see what happens Approaches to Personality 1) Dispositional Approach - possess stable traits or characteristics - NOT likely to change our disposition; we are who we are no matter what 2) Situational Approach - the situation has a culture and a characteristic environment - we behave in certain ways because of the organizational setting - everyone will follow a situation; not a product of our personalities but rather the work environment 3) Interactionist Approach - organizational behaviour is a function of both disposition and the situation - personality and work setting determine organizational behaviour - people flex a bit for the situation but won’t change completely Five Factor Model of Personality Openness to Experience - flexible to new ideas Conscientiousness - getting things done Extraversion - outgoing vs. shy Agreeableness - friendly/approachable Neuroticism/Emotional Stability - neurotic – inability to control emotions Contributors to Disposition Locus of Control - external – my world impacts me - internal – I impact my world Self-Monitoring - observe and control their image/watch for social cues Self Esteem - degree to which we have positive feelings about ourselves Positive/Negative Affectivity - PA experience positive emotions and view the world in a positive light Proactive Personality - degree to which we initiate to effect positive change General Self-Efficacy - degree of belief in our ability to perform well in challenging situations Core Self-Evaluations - view of self-worth, competence, and capability Learning Categories 1. Practical Skills - job specific skills, knowledge 2. Intrapersonal Skills - problem solving, critical thinking, risk taking 3. Interpersonal Skills - communication, teamwork, conflict resolution 4. Cultural Awareness - learning social norms of organizations Operant Learning Theory - subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences - connection between behaviour and the consequence that is learned - see diagram Social Cognitive Theory - people learn by observing the behaviour of others and can regulate their own behaviour by thinking about the consequences of their actions, setting goals, monitoring performance, and rewarding themselves Triadic process: Behaviour Environment  Personal Factors - personal factors and environmental factors work together and interact to influence people’s behaviour - people’s behaviour also influences personal factors and the environment Social Identity Theory - people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories Personal Identity - based on our unique characteristics Social Identity - based on our perception that we belong to various social groups Attribution – assign causes and motives to explain people’s behaviours 1. Dispositional – “that’s just who they are” 2. Situational – “that’s just where we are” 3. Cues: a) Consistency – “are they the same over time” b) Consensus – “do most people do this” c) Distinctiveness – “are they like this in all situations” Equity Theory - job satisfaction comes from a comparison between your job inputs/outputs and other people’s inputs and outputs - if someone else is not working as hard as you but still receiving the same pay and benefits as you are, you will not see the job as equitable Types of Organizational Commitment 1. Affective Commitment - based on person’s identification and involvement with an organization - will stay with an organization because they want to 2. Continuance Commitment - based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving the organization - will stay with an organization because they have to 3. Normative Commitment - based on a feeling of obligation to an organization - will stay with an organization because they think they should do so - there because all my friends are there etc. - employees in these categories are committed to the organization for different reasons Stages of Group Development 1. Forming – who we are, who is the leader etc. 2. Storming – feel stuck, conflic
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