OB NOTES FINAL EXAM
Chapter 9 Leadership
Leadership The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an
Strategic leadership ability to anticipate, envision, strategize, be flexible and work with others to
initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization.
Traits: Individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality.
What leaders BRING into a group setting
Motivation to lead
Need for Achievement
There are some traits associated with leadership success, they are not sufficient for leadership. Having
the traits makes it possible and more likely certain actions will be taken. Trait approach fails to take
account the situation.
BEHAVIOUR OF LEADERS
What leaders DO, what behaviours lead them to BECOME leaders; LEADERSHIP STYLE.
Four kinds of behaviours:
1. Consideration extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and
respecet for employees. Strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader satisfaction and job
satisfaction), motivation and leader effectiveness.
2. Initiating structure The degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment.
Strongly related to leader job performance and group performance.
Depends on situation. E.g. a) high degree of pressure from deadlines, initiating structure is important,
b)when how to do job is clear and employees are highly skilled, consideration would promote employee
satisfaction, but structure might be seen as redundant.
3. Leader reward behavior: the leaders use of compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special
treatment. When such rewards are contingent, employees will be satisfied and have high performance.
Related to employee perceptions, attitude.
4. Leadership punishment behavour: leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments
and the active withholding of rewards. Effective of contingent on negative employee behavior.
Both lead to positive perceptions of justice and lower role ambiguity if contingent on employee
Situational Theories of Leadership Fielders Contingency Theory: the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is
contingent on how favorable the situation is for exerting influence.
Leadership orientation measured by the LPC.
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) a current/past worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time
accomplishing a task.
a) High LPC score leader describes coworker favourably, relationship oriented
b) Low LPC score leader describes coworker negatively, task oriented
Difference between LPC and consideration/initiating structure is that LPC is an attitude of
leader, while consideration/initiating structure are observed behaviours.
Situational Favourableness: FACTORS THAT AFFECT, contingency: LTP
1) Leader-member relations: When the relationship between the leader and the group member is good,
leader is in favourable situation to influence. Poor relationship = less influence, could lead to
insubordination or sabotage.
2) Task structure: highly structured task = high leader influence, clear goals and procedures, along with
straightforward performance measures help achieve this.
3) Position power: the more position power a leader holds, the more favourable the leadership situation
favorable situation: good member relations, structured tasks, strong position power
unfavorable situation: poor member relations, unstructured tasks and weak position power
low LPC: most effective leadership when position is favorable or when unfavorable. or when very
unfavourable. This is because in favourable situation, you can get away with task orientation because
employees are ready to be influenced. In unfavourable situation, task orientation is necessary to get
High LPC: best for medium favourability, as a relationship orientation will help make best of situation
that is stress-provoking but not impossibly bad (i.e. poor relationship with employees or unclear task).
Cognitive Resource Theory: a leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leaders
cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise, and experience) contribute to effective leadership
contribute to effective leadership. Depends on
a) directiveness of the leader
b) group support for the leader
c) stressfulness of the situation
Leader intelligence is predicted to be most important when the leader is directive, supported, and it is a
HOUSES PATH goal theory: Robert houses theory concerned with the situations under which various
leader behaviors are most effective. most important activities of a leader are to clarify the paths to
The effective leader forms a connection between employee goals and organizational goals.
Leader behavior Situational Factors Employee Outcomes
A) Leader Behaviour
1) Directive: initiate structure, let employees know what is expected of them. 2) Supportive behavior: being friendly, showing consideration, good interpersonal relationships.
3) Participative behavior: consulting with employees about work-related matters; getting their opinions
4) Achievement- oriented: encourage employees to show high effort and confidence in them.
1) Employee Characteristics different types of employees need/prefer different types of leadership.
2) Environmental Factors effectiveness of leader depends on particular work environment.
1) Job Satisfaction leader behavior must be perceived as immediately satisfying.
2) Acceptance of Leader- future satisfaction.
3) Effort leaders must make rewards dependent on performance and make sure employees have clear
picture on how to achieve these goals through coaching, support, and direction.
Participative leadership: involving employees in making work-related decisions.
Motivation: increases motivation of employees as it allows them to contribute to establishing their own
work goals; intrinsic motivation +.
Acceptance: employees feel more involved, perceive decisions as more fair.
Quality: a) more people involved = higher-quality decision b) empowers employees in direct action to
solve problems without checking every detail with the boss.
Receptivity/knowledge lacking: employees might not be receptive to participation; often when leader is
Energy/Time: participation takes time, hard to make a quick decision
Power loss: some leaders will feel that a participative style will = loss of power and influence.
Situational Model of Participation: three degrees of participation
1) Autocratic 2) Consultative 3) Group
Degree strategy depends on:
QR quality requirement
CR commitment requirement
workers prefer a participative environment.
Leader-Member Exchange Theory: a theory of leadership that focuses on the quality of the relationship
that develops between a leader and an employee.
high LMX high-quality relationship, trust, loyalty, respect between leader and employee.
low LMX low trust, loyalty, repect, etc.
higher-quality relationship results in positive outcomes
Transactional Leadership: Leadership that is based on a straightforward exchange relationship between the leader and the followers. management by exception: leadership that involves the leader taking
corrective action on the basis of results of leader-follower transactions. contingent reward behaviour
Transformational leadership: leadership that provides followers with a new vision that instills true
commitment. 4 key dimensions: ICII
1) Intellectual stimulation: challenging assumptions, taking risks, soliciting followers ideas.
2)Individualized Consideration: treating employees as distinct individuals, serving as a mentor.
3) Inspirational Motivation: communication of visions that are appealing/inspiring to followers.
4) Charisma: ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers, thus having a strong
potential to influence them. from greek word meaning gifted.
people identify with charismatic individuals, internalize the persons values and are affected emotionally
- traits include: self-confidence, dominance, strong conviction in ones beliefs. charisma is a complex set
affective because create high LMX relationships
Ethical Leadership: The demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and
interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way
communication, reinforcement, and decision making.
a) communicate a clear and consistent positive ethics message from the top.
b) Create and embrace opportunities for everyone to communicate positive ethics, values and practices.
c) Ensure consequences for ethical and unethical conduct
Authentic leadership: a positive form of leadership that involves being true to oneself. Authentic leaders
know and act upon their true values, beliefs and strengths, help others do the same.
4 dimensions of authentic leadership: RIBS
1. Relational Transparency presenting ones true self to others; experession of true thoughts/feelings.
2. Internalized moral perspective: internal moral standards and values that guide ones behaviour.
3. Balanced Processing: objective analysis of relevant info before making a decision.
4. Self-Awareness: knowledge of ones own weaknesses/strengths
Culture and Global Leadership some attributes are culturally contingent. (e.g. being individualistic)
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