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BU354 - Final Exam - Textbook Chapter Notes

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Shawn Komar

BU354 - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FINAL EXAM CHAPTER NOTES Chapter 1: The Strategic Role of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management (HRM) is the management of people in organizations to drive successful organizational performance and achievement of the organizations strategic goals. HR professionals must manage the workforce by attracting, retaining, and engaging talent. Human Capital is the knowledge, education, training, skills, and expertise of an organizations workforce. *Effective HR practices are related to better organizational performance. Human Resource Management Responsibilities Operational Responsibilities are where HR professionals hire and maintain employees and also manage separations. o Outsourcing is the practice of contracting with outside vendors to handle specified functions on a permanent basis. o These services include: o analyzing jobs o planning future workforce requirements o selecting employees o orienting and training employees o managing compensation and reward plans o communicating with employees (including counseling and disciplining) Strategic Responsibilities is where HR professionals are focused on ensuring that the organization is staffed with the most effective human capital to achieve its strategic goals. o Strategy the companys plan for how it will balance its internal strengths and weaknesses with external opportunities and threats in order to maintain a competitive advantage o increasingly, the HR department is being viewed as an equal partner in strategic planning process o HR specialists are expected to be change agents o Role in Formulating Strategy Environmental Scanning involves identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the organizations success. *Details regarding a successful incentive plan being used by a competitor, impending labour shortages, and information about pending legislative changes are examples. o Role in Executing Strategy Strategy execution is typically the area where HR makes the biggest strategic contribution (i.e. downsizing, flattening the hierarchy, redesigning jobs, etc.) HR Professionals and line managers have a significant impact on employee turnover, engagement and engagement so it is important that there is employee recognition, developmental programs, and career-oriented performance appraisals. o Measuring the Value of HR: Metrics Need metrics to measure the effectiveness of HRM procedures by measuring results Balanced Scorecard is a measurement system that translates an organizations strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures. Environmental Influences on HRM Must monitor the environment on an ongoing basis, assess the impact of any changes, and be proactive in responding to challenges. External Environmental Influences Economic Conditions: affect demand and supply for products and services and in turn has an effect on the numbers and types of employees required as well as a companys ability to pay for wages or benefits. o Productivity the ratio of an organizations output (goods and services) to its inputs (people, capital, energy, and materials) o Must be able to produce more outputs with the same or lesser input levels as productivity rates drop in Canada. i. Employment Levels ii.Productivity Levels iii.Growth of the service sector o Primary sector agriculture, fishing and trapping, forestry, and mining; represent 4% of jobs o Secondary sector manufacturing and construction; represent 19% of jobs o Tertiary or service sector public administrating, personal and business services, finance, trade, public utilities, and transportation/communications; represents 77% of jobs Workforce Issues o Increasing workforce diversity by age, race, gender, sexual orientation, disabilities, generational and demographic differences as there will be less workers taking over the jobs of the baby boomers; education and functional illiteracy; non-standard contingent workers. Technology: lines between family and work are blurred; concerns about data, accuracy and privacy arise Government: considerable variation between jurisdictions exist; EI and CPP apply to all jurisdictions; ensuring policies and practices comply with new and changing laws Globalization: refers to the emergence of a single global market for most products and services; HR professionals need to familiarize themselves with the employment legislations and manage ethical dilemmas; firms extend business operations abroad; increased international competition Environmental Concerns: interest in environmental issues is motivating companies to be accountable for their actions o sustainability o climate change o global warming o pollution and carbon footprint o extinction of wildlife species o ecosystem fragility o other related issues are increasingly important to people around the world Internal Environmental Influences Organizational Culture: the core values, beliefs, and assumptions that are widely shared by members of an organization; has a great impact on employer branding, recruitment, retention, and productivity. What is the purpose of OC? o Communicating what the organization believes in and stands for o Providing employees with a sense of direction and expected behaviour (norms) o Shaping employees attitudes about themselves, the organization, and their roles o Creating a sense of identity, orderliness, and consistency o Fostering employee loyalty and commitment Organizational Climate: refers to the prevailing atmosphere that exists in an organization and its impact on employees. Influenced by management leadership style, HR policies, and amount and style of organizational communication. Empowerment: refers to providing workers with the skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers. A Brief History of HRM (not covering this) Scientific Management: Concern for Production is the process of scientifically analyzing manufacturing processes, reducing production costs, and compensating employees based on performance theorized by Frederick Taylor. Human Relations Movement: Concern for People is a management philosophy based on the belief that the attitudes and feelings of workers are important and deserve more attention; that the physical and social aspects of the workplace have equal importance based on the Hawthorne Studies. The Human Resources Movement: Concern for People and Productivity is a management philosophy focusing on concern for people and productivity. Phase 1 HRM focused on hiring and firing, payroll, and administering benefits. Phase 2 unionization, orientation, performance appraisals, and employee relations. Phase 3 penalties emerged for failing to meet employment legislations. Phase 4 making strategic moves to secure talent and retaining human capital. Growing Professionalism in HRM Canadian Council of Human Resources Associations (CCHRA) Certified Human Resources Professional (CHRP) o common body of knowledge o certification of members (CHRP) o self-regulation o code of ethics, social responsibility Ethics The professionalization of HRM has created the need for a uniform code of ethics, as agreement to abide by the code of ethics is one of the requirements of maintaining professional status. Codes do not tell employees what to do, it is simply a guide for employees, and they use their own judgement in taking a course of action. Social Responsibility is the implied, enforced, or felt obligation of managers, acting in their official capacities, to serve or protect the interests of groups other than themselves. *Trends in HR: Outsourcing HR and payroll functions Talent shortage for promotion into senior positions, so HR is being taken into consideration when looking at strategy Increasing globalization, increased competition Women in the workforce Chapter 2: The Changing Legal Emphasis The Legal Framework for Employment Law in Canada Companies with employees in different provinces/territories must monitor the legislations in each of those jurisdictions and remain current as legislation changes. 14 jurisdictions: 10 provinces; 3 territories; Canada as a whole. constitutional law - Charter of Rights and Freedoms legislated Acts of Parliament - Income Tax Act.. regulations (for legislated Acts) - rules to aid interpretation of laws common law - judicial precedents contract law - collective agreements/employment contracts provincial/territorial employment laws govern 90% of Canadian workers
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