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CP 102 Midterm Review.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Computer Science
Igor Ivkovic

CP 102 Midterm Review Terms Data – stored representations of meaningful objects and events - metadata: describes the properties and context of user data - data flow: data moving with a system - structured data: numbers, text, dates - unstructured data: images, video, documents Information - data placed in a context - processed to increase knowledge in the person using the data Process - sequence of operations performed achieve a goal - process may be a continually ongoing activity Method - formal procedure for creating results using well-defined nation Methodology - collection of techniques unified by a philosophical approach Tools (or technology) - instruments or automated systems used to enact a technique - ex. computer aided design (CAD) software Information Technology - technology used for creation, distribution and storage of information Digital Revolution - ongoing process of social, political and economic change brought by digital technology, like computers and the internet - evolved through four phases: expired, tired, uninspired, desired Digitalization - converting text, numbers, sound, photos and video into data that can be processed by digital devices Data Processing - some historians label 1980 as beginning of DR; first phase of DR - first computers built during WW2 for breaking codes and calculating missile trajectories - trained technicians operated computers - housed in closet-sized cabinets, didn’t include keyboard or monitor - based on an input-processing-output cycle - goes into computer, it’s processed, then it’s output Personal Computing - model for third phase of DR - characterized by small, standalone computers powered by local software - local software refers to any software that’s installed on computer’s hard drive Network Computing - third phase of DR; materialized as computers became networked & when internet was opened to public use - computer network is group of computers linked together to share data and resources - www (world wide web) collection of linked docs, graphics and sounds that can be accessed over internet - 95-2010, computing characterized by www, email, multiplayer games and software apps like office, Norton’s Internet Security Suite and Corel digital studio Cloud Computing - local apps are eclipsed by cloud computing, which characterizes fourth phase of digital revolution - provides access to information, applications, communications and storage over the internet - convergence is important to the digital revolution; created mobile devices, owners demand access to same services available - social media are cloud-based applications designed for social interaction and consumer-generated content Digital Society - Digital technologies and communications networks make it easy to cross cultural and geographic boundaries - Anonymous internet sites, such as Freenet, and anonymizer tools that cloak a person’s identity, even make it possible to exercise freedom of speech in situations where reprisals might repress it - Citizens of free societies have an expectation of privacy - Intellectual property refers to ownership of certain types of information, ideas, or representations - Digital technology is an important factor in global and national economies, in addition to affecting the economic status of individuals - Globalization can be defined as the worldwide economic interdependence of countries that occurs as cross-border commerce increases and as money flows more freely among countries - Some individuals are affected by the digital divide, a term that refers to the gap between people who have access to technology and those who do not - Digital technology permeates the very core of modern life Computer Basics - Computer is multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data and produces output, all according to a set of stored instructions - Computer input is anything typed, submitted or transmitted to a computer system - Output is the result produced by a computer - Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas - Computers manipulate data in many ways, and this manipulation is called processing - central processing unit (CPU) - microprocessor - Memory is area of computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored or output - Storage is area where data can be left on permanent basis when it’s not immediately needed for processing - File is named collection of data that exists on storage medium - Series of instructions that tells computer how to carry out processing tasks is referred to as a computer program (aka software) - Stored program means instructions for computing task can be loaded into computer’s memory - allows you to switch tasks - distinguishes a computer from other simpler and less versatile digital devices - Application software is a set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task - Software applications are sometimes referred to as apps, especially in context of handheld devices - Operating system (OS) – system software whose primary purpose is to help the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently Computer Types and Uses - Personal computer is a microprocessor-based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual - Handheld such as iPhones, iPads, iPods, Garmin GPSs, Droids, and Kindles - Handheld devices incorporate many computer characteristics - Handheld devices can be divided into two broad categories: those allow users to install software applications (apps) and those that do not - Videogame consoles are not generally referred to as personal computer because of their history as dedicated game devices - Workstation: - ordinary personal computer connected to network - powerful desktop computer used for high-performance tasks - Purpose of server is to serve computers on network by supplying them with data - Mainframe is large, expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users - Computer falls into supercomputer category if it’s at time of constriction, one of the fastest computers in the world - compute-intensive problem is one that requires massive amounts of data to be processed using complex math calculations Microcontrollers - Special-purpose microprocessor that is built into machine it controls - Microcontrollers can be embedded in all sorts of everyday devices Data Representation Basics - Refers to the form in which data is stored, processed and transmitted - Digital data is text, numbers, graphics, sound and video converted into discrete digits such as 0s and 1s - Analog data represented using infinite scale of values Representing Multimedia Data - Numeric data - binary number system (using 0s and 1s) - Character data - ASCII, EBCDIC, Extended ASCII and Unicode standards Circuits and Chips - Integrated circuit is a super thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements - Electronic components of most digital devices are mounted on a circuit board called a system board, motherboard, or main board Programs and Instruction Sets - Computers and dedicated handheld devices all work with digital data under control of computer program - Computer programmers create programs that control digital devices. These programs are usually written in high-level programming language - Human-readable version of program created in high-level language by a programmer is called source code - Microprocessor is hard-wired to perform a limited set of activities - activities such as addition, subtraction, counting and comparisons, called an instruction set - End product is called machine code - Op code is command word for add, compare or jump Processor Logic - Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is part of microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations - ALU uses registers to hold data that is being processed Password Hacks - When someone gains unauthorized access to your personal data and uses it illegally, it’s called identity theft - Dictionary attack helps hackers guess password - An even more sophisticated approach to password theft is phishing - Keylogger is software that records user’s keystrokes and sends information to hacker Secure Passwords - Strive to select to a unique user ID that you can use for more than one sit - Maintain two or three tiers of passwords Lecture 2 - Desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet - Typical desktop computer system includes several components, such as: - system unit - keyboard and mouse - hard disk drive - optical drive - removable storage - sound system - display system - network and internet access - printer Desktop Computer Systems - Form factor refers to size and dimensions of a component, such as system board or system unit Portable Computers - Portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer - Three types of computers 1. Enhanced media player 2. Smartphone 3. Tablet computer Specialized Computer Systems - Some of the most cutting-edge computers are designed for gaming - Computers marketed for small business applications middle-of-the-line models pared down to essentials Microproce
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