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PO 220 Exam Review.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
PO220
Professor
Andrea Brown
Semester
Winter

Description
PO 220 Exam ReviewSection 1 Conflict Armies and DevelopmentNigeriaththLectures February 25 and 27Political violencePolitical violence is the breakdown of politicswhen politics breaks down violence ensuesWho uses political violenceoGroupsagainst the state or against other groups use it as a tool to achieve a political goal oGovernmentsnational governments have coercive capacity and control over means of violenceoMilitariesoften use it against their own government or a population without it being something that is supported officially by the state oMilitiasrebel groups on opposition to the state or a breakaway segment of a militaryoGroups in societypeople with principled activist goals that result in violence Examples of political violence oRevolutionhuman rights abuses civil war regional wars terrorismoUnder military rule in Brazil people disappeared and were detained and questioned on suspicions that they were on the political left oIrredentist warconflict where an ethnic group crosses the border into another group and where a movement emerges to try and reunite this group into a common country Why use political violenceoGroups of people unhappy with the statewant to alter government policy or even institute a new leadership oCan be violence of people against the state the state against the people or groups of people against other groups of people Ethnicity and Conflict Ethnicity a group that believes it has common traditions beliefs values and history which unite it and distinguish it from other groups Biggest example of ethnic conflict is the differences between Tutsis and Hutusbefore colonialism these groups were fluid meaning that one could transfer from one group to the other through means such as marriage but colonialists took away this fluidity and divided the groups against one anotherEthnicity is sometimes fabricated by outsidersoAn example are todays ethnic differences between Tutsis and Hutus oYoruba in Nigeria are a good example of an ethnicity that exists today but that was formed by outsidersEthnic tensionsperception that there is an unfairness between one ethnic group and another Important to remember that ethnicity does not cause violencemost countries in the world are multiethnic and do not experience violence because of itEthnicity can be a positive force and in most countries it is oEthnic groupings can create strong support for membersoHelp newcomers find housing adapt to a new placeoIn developing world groupings can also find support if there are tensions with other groups in finding solidarity But can also be a negative forceoCan divide society furtheroMake existing tensions worseNigerias experience with ethnicityoNigeria has tried to come up with a solution to ethnic divisions by decentralizing powercreating more and more states now there are 36oHowever each states owe their identities to the majority ethnic group within it oThey all compete with one another for their share of oil revenue oBecause of the religious divide the state has decentralized power further by allowing states in the north with majority Muslim populations to enforce sharia law Factors that Contribute to Identitybased ConflictColonialism oColonial powers both with direct and indirect rule favoured some ethnic groups over others which pitted groups against one another and reinforced ethnic divisions oDrew arbitrary state lines which did not exist before Included groups that had very little in common and divided other groups which had lived together for centuries oCreates inequalities between groupsRwandaTutsis given more power than HutusIn Nigeria Christian south benefitted from missionary education in the north there was very little infrastructure oAround the time of independence there is a short period of nationalism between ethnic groups because all groups have the same goalget rid of the colonialistsbut this doesnt last longState instrumentalism of ethnicity oNo middle classoBig state sectoroScarcity and poverty within huge populationsoElite competition Political competition became competition between elites around terms of ethnicity eg Yoruba will all vote for Yoruba leader just because he is YorubaoEthnic groups have often been used as a channel to help people get jobs Eg a village of people all make sacrifices to help a smart young boy get an education and a jobnow the boy owes his village something for that support Two people from his village now need jobs so he helps them and positions are filled based on who people know not how qualified they are The state also has loyalties back to their ethnic groups and villagesthis is how they decide where schools will be built who will get jobs etc This often leads to clientelismClientelism oStatepoweroThe above two things are equal to one another but when you add in ethnic divisions it leads to clientelism
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