Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
WLU (6,000)
PS (1,000)
PS102 (80)
Study Guide

PS102 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Selection Bias, Binocular Disparity, Longwave


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Joanne Lee
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 13 pages of the document.
WLU
PS102
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Chapter 1 Pages 14-20 & 23-28
Psychoanalysis The Psychology of the Unconscious
Sigmund Freud (1856 1939)
the belief that people’s behaviours are based on their unconscious desires and conflicts
Freud developed psychoanalysis that aimed to resolve unconscious conflicts
Behaviourism
- psychological research should only focus on behaviour you can observe
Freud is about unconsciousness and Skinner is about observable behaviour
Edward Thorndike
Proposed research findings from the study of animals could help explain human
behaviour
Proposed Law of Effect (suggests that we creatures engage in a behaviour more often
when we have satisfying/rewarding consequences)
Ivan Pavlov
Found that dogs could learn to associate a bell with an automatic behaviour such as
salivating for food. This is called classical conditioning
John B Watson
Conducted the “little albert” experiment demonstrating that children (people) could be
classically conditioned
o In the experiment, the child was trained to be afraid of furry animals
B.F Skinner
Developed operant conditioning to shape behaviour
Albert Bandura
Famous for observational learning
Described learning by social observation in children & several species of primates
E.g. bonobo chimpanzee observing behaviour of an adult
Humanistic Psychology
Humanist psychologists stressed that a person has a capacity for personal growth and the
freedom to choose his or her destiny, and positive qualities
Carl Rogers
Developed “client centred” therapy which said that people are innately good
Abraham Maslow
Developed a theory of motivation that consists of a hierarchy of needs
The first two branches of psychology (Freud and skinner) are on 2 very different sides of a
spectrum. Freud’s view is so pessimistic in the sense where humans were not given choice.
Whereas Skinner’s view was only about observable behaviour. This is where Humanistic
psychologists came and created a new branch of psychology...
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Chapter 1 Pages 14-20 & 23-28
Cognitive Psychology (Study of the Mind)
Ulric Neisser coined the term cognitive psychology as the study of information processing
- The role of mental processes in how people process information, develop language, solve
problems, and think
- Cognitive psychologists compared the human mind to a computer
Psychology Today
- Blurred lines between all the branches of psychology
- Clinical psychology is the most common PhD
Psychology is…
Theory driven: uses theories to explain behaviour
Empirical: based on research
Multi-level: explained by the brain, the individual, and social influences
Contextual: based on cultural context
In the past: there was a belief that women talk more than men. But last year, studies showed that
men and women produced the same amount of words.
Current Trends in Psychology
Growing Diversity
- More women and members of minority groups
- Efficacy increases
o because a drug whose testing was only conducted based on white males; efficacy was
decreased because they did not include white women
- sample group has to be wholesome (the world does not only consist of white men)
Advances in Technology
- The development of computers and brain imaging techniques
new research in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and social neuroscience
New Schools of Thought
- Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy focus on happiness and other positive
emotions
- E.g. yoga, meditation, exercise
- Things like this help people diagnosed with clinical depression
Leads to
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version