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PS102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Agrammatism, Reward System, Naturalistic Observation

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Joanne Lee
Study Guide

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PS102 Term Test 2 Review
Chapter 4 Human Development
Chapter Intro
- Developmental Psychology: the study of changes in behaviour and mental processes over
time and the factors that influence the course of those constancies and changes
How is Developmental Psychology Studied?
- Cross-Sectional Design: research approach that compares groups of different-aged people
to another
- Cohort Effects: cohort is any group of people born at about the same time
- Longitudinal Design: research approach that follows the same people over a period of time
by administering the same tasks or questionnaires and seeing how their responses change
- Cohort-Sequential Design: blended cross-sectional and longitudinal research, designed to
look at how individuals from different age groups compare to one another and follow them
over time
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Mapping Change
a) Stages Discontinuous (Qualitative) Changes
b) Continuous Gradual (Quantitative) Changes
c) No Change Remains Constant
d) Inverted U-Shape emerges early, peaks and diminishes with age
o An infant grabbing a finger
e) U-Shape emerges early and disappears and then re-emerges
o Supporting the neck of a baby
o Moron Reflex: babys feet plat on the ground and then disappears but reappears
when they start walking again
What Drives Change?
- Nature and Nurture
- Nature: our genetic inheritance, and how much it is influenced by
- Nurture: term that encompasses the environment around us as well as our experiences as
we grow
- Maturation: the unfolding of development in a particular sequence and time frame
- Epigenetic: changes in gene expression that are independent of the DNA sequence of the
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Shifts in Development
- Quantitative Change: involves gradual increases in some element, such as height or weight
- Qualitative Change: not that we are bigger, faster, or more coordinated, but we are
different in some way
Do Early Experiences Matter? Critical Periods and Sensitive Periods
- Critical Periods: a window of time in development during which certain influences are
necessary for appropriate formation of the brain
- Sensitive Periods: most of todays psychologists and biologists believe that these are times
when individuals are especially receptive to environmental input, but not rigidly so
o More complex cognitive and social development theorists view these as largely
experience-driven, flexible, and less well-defined boundaries than a critical period
Heredity and Prenatal Development
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- Prenatal Period: period of development stretching from conception to birth
- Genes: basic building blocks of our biological inheritance
- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): molecules in which genetic information is enclosed
- Chromosomes: strands of DNA
o Each human being has 46 chromosomes distributed in pairs (X or Y)
Female: XX
Male: XY
- Each sperm and each egg (ovum) have 23 chromosomes
o When the sperm fertilizes the ovum, a single-celled organism usually with 46
chromosomes is created
- Genotype: a persons genetic inheritance
- Phenotype: the observable display of a persons genetic inheritance
- Alleles: variation of the same gene
- Homozygous: both parents contribute the same genetic material for a particular trait
- Heterozygous: parents contribute 2 different alleles to offspring
- Dominant Trait: expressed in a phenotype, no matter whether the genotype is
homozygous or heterozygous for the trait
- Recessive Trait: only expressed if a person carries the same 2 genetic alleles
o Is homozygous for the trait
- For some traits, a person with a heterozygous pair of alleles may show a mixture of genetic
- Codominance: in a heterozygous combination of alleles, both traits are expressed in the
- Discrete Traits: trait that results as the product of a single gene pairing
- Polygenic Traits: trait that shows as a result of contributions of multiple genes
Prenatal Development
- Zygote: a single cell resulting from successful fertilization of the eggs by sperm
- Germinal Stage: the first 2 weeks after conception
o Stage One
- Blastocyst: what the zygote is known as after the fourth day following conception
- Placenta: nutrient-rich structure that serves to feed the developing fetus
- Embryonic Stage: most of the major systems of the body begin to take shape
o Stage Two
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