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PS 100 Test 1 Review

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Don Morgenson

Psychology Notes  Young science, founded 1879 by Wilheim Wundt is it a science? 1. Complexity: is it possible for the grain to understand the whole system 2. Ethics: manipulation, deontologucal (never use humans), consequnetialism ( worth it, greater good) 3. Psychophobia 4. Context of human behavior is constantly changing Historical Precedent in Psychology • Anemism: objects inhabited by a spirit • Plato: rationalism , dualism (mind/body) • Aristotle: body works for the mind, observation and experiments, overt behavior • John Locke: mind a blank slate • Wilhiem Wundt o Structuralism o First Psych lab o After suffering illness probes own mind and experiences o Introspection: examine structure of mind o Mind and brain made of one structure • Structuralism o The structuralists believed that psychology should be about analyzing consciousness into its basic elements, just as physicists were studying how matter was made up of basic particles…to do this, Titchener and his followers relied on introspection, a process by which a person makes careful, systematic self-observations of one’s own conscious experience. o • Functionalism o Mind has one thing to do, function o Ability to adapt o 2 formal school of Psychology o Helps the organism to adjust to new situations o investigating the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. • William James o Pragmatism o Mind help adapt to new environment • John Dewey oLearning by doing • Behaviourism (radical ) oPavlov, Watson and Skinner oOvert behaviour only oCan’t get into the mind oStimulus response oPavolov: dog and bell, conditioning oWatson: create any type of person through conditioning oSkinner: rewards and punishmen, reinforcing oNurture is the most important • Gestalt oConfiguration oBrain needs closure, don’t know what you did oWholsim o3 formal school • Psychoanalysis oWe are driven by unconscious impulses we don’t understand oFree association, say everything comes to mind and interpret • Humanirdic Existential o3 force of psychology oReductionist approach oPut together not take apart oAnonymity, conformity, depersonalizes • Existential oFree oChoice oResponsibility • Biopsychosocial Model oTissues oMind oSocial context of your life oEach affects the other oMust understand all 3 oSomething physical will effect how you feel • Humanism oUnique qualities of people oFree will, potential for growth • Cognition oThinking or conscious experience oPiaget, Chomsky, Simon oUsed scientific method oNow the dominant perspective • Biological oPhysiological basis of behaviour in people and animals oFunctioning can be explained by bodily structures, and biochemical processes • Evolutionary oBehavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems oNatural selection favours behavior that enhance reproductive success • Seven Major Research Areas in Psychology oDevelopmental : childhood, adolescence, adulthood oSocial Psychology: interpersonal behavior oExperimental Psychology: traditional core, oPhysiological : genetic factors oCognitive: higher mental processes oPersonality: consistency in behaviour oPsychometrics: measure behaviour and capacities • Four Major Areas of Applied Specialization oClinical oCounselling oEducational oIndustrial and Organizational Nature of Psychological Inquiry 1) Non reactive naturalistic Observation • Look and observe 2) Case Study • Intense study of one individual • Nomothetic: cohort or group • Idiographic: 1 person 3) Correlation • How two variables move Chapter 2 • Experimental o Scientific method o Self correcting o Quantifiable • Dependent Variable = behaviour • Independent = manipulation of factors o Function of stimulus: others o Organismic variable: you o Response variables: past effect present Chapter 3 o Basic components of the nervous system are nerve cells and glia cells o Glia cells are like glue, structure and insulation for neurons Neurons o Soma/ Cell Body: cell nucleus o Dendrites: specialized branches that receive information o Axon: long fibers transmit signals away from the soma, to other neurons o Myelin Sheath: insulates, sometimes encases axon, speed transition of signals along axon, degeneration of this leads to Parkinson’s o Terminal Buttons: secret neurotransmitters o Synapses: gap between neurons, where information is transferred between neurons o Action Potential: brief shift in the electrical charge that travels along the axon, all the same size, all or nothing o Absolute Refractory Period: minimum time after AP where a AP cannot occur o Resting Potential: stable neg charge, neuron at rest o Synaptic Cleft: space between terminal button and soma of another. Releases neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit info from one neuron to the next o Postsynaptic Potential: voltage change at receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane. Graded, vary in size o Excitatory PSP: positicve voltage shift increases the likelihood of PSP euron will fire an AP o Inhibitory PSP: negative that decreases o Reuptake : neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane 3 types of Neurons • Sensory/ afferent o Scent, touch, hearing • Motor/ Efferent o Glandular, muscular • Interneurons o Connect everything, interprets between sense and motor Characteristics of Neurons • Amino Acids • Specific • Many produce only one but respond to many Neurotransmitters (40) • Dopamine: schizo has too much, voluntary movement, pleasurable emotions, decreased linked with Parkinson’s, cocaine and amphetamines elevate their synapses • Aceticoline: muscular movements, skeletal muscle, attention, arousal, and memory, some stimulated by nicotine • Seratonin: mood, depressed= not enough, sleep, wakefulness, eating, aggression, OSD, • Endorphines: natural opiates in brain, when in pain these go up, resemble opiates, pain relief and pleasurable emotions • Much like lock and key will not go into any receptor site • Drugs that resemble are called agonists, some just block • Stored in vesicles Gross Functions • Motor Cotex (RH LH), paralysis • Somatosensory Cortex : senses, where strokes occur • Visual Cortex • Auditory Cortex: hear, what music means to us • Association Cortex: association fibres connecting brain together • Experience Cortex: recording function in temporal lobe Reticular Activating System • Small tissue below medulla • Alerts brain so you can respond in a coordinated way • Go into coma if not working Brain Hemispheres • Right controls left • Right Hemisphere: • Left Hemisphere: Ways of damaging brain • Head trauma: memory, brain damage • Stroke: clot or rupture in the brain Brain can Repair itself • High plasticity, compensation for missing parts • Collateral Sprouting o Healthy neurons near dead, reach out grow new branches (dendrites) to compensate • Substitution of Functions o Parts of the brain not need anymore (blind) so it will help in other areas, other senses more powerful • Neurogenesis o Grow more neurons o Still unsure if true • The brain will not be able to overcome a lot of damage Nervous System o Central Nervous System o Brain  Integrates information from inside and outside the body, coordinates actions, enables speech, thinking, memory, planning, dreaming etc o Spinal Cord  Connect the brain to body  Extension of the brain  Carries commands from bran to peripheral nerves, relays messages back to the brain. o Enclosed in meninges (meningitis is inflammation of this) o Bathed in Cerebrospinal Fluid, nourishes the brain , protective cushion, hollow cavities filled with (ventricles) o Peripheral Nervous System (nerves outside brain and spinal cord, extends outside the central) o Somatic Nervous System  Nerves that connects muscles and sensory receptors  Afferent Nerve Firbres • Axons carrying info to CNS from the periphery of the body  Efferent Nerve Firbres • Carry info out to the periphery of the body o Autonomic Nervous System  Connects heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands  Mediates autonomic arousal, fight or flight  Controls auto, invol, and visceral functions that people don’t think about = heart rate, d
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