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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

CHAPTER 1 -Psychology = 2 words -Psyche = soul -Logos = study of something -Psychology = the study of the mind Wundt --> 1832-1920 -German professor -Made psychology an independent discipline -1879 --> first formal lab of psych in University of Leipzig -Founder of psychology -Psych should be a science like physics and chemistry -Study of the conscious experience -Methods should be as scientific as chemistry & physics G. Stanley Hall --> student of Wundt -Spread growth of psychology in America -Established the APA --> American Psychological Association Structuralism -Edward Titchener -Separate consciousness into its basic elements -Examine elements such as feelings, emotions, and images -Introspection  observation of one’s own feelings -Train subject to be more objective & aware -Limitations  cannot look objectively at an individual’s reflection on an experience Functionalism -William James -Study the function of our conscious not structure -Principles of Psychology (1890) -Natural selection --> traits are favorable that lead to survival of the species -Consciousness is typical of humans & therefore important -Investigate the function -Flow of thoughts  stream of consciousness -Structuralists focused on static points -How people adapt behavior -Lead to behaviorism & applied psych Behaviorism -John Watson -Should only study observable behavior -Do not study the conscious -Mental processes were not scientific --> too private -Cannot see/touch another’s thoughts -Science of behavior -Nature versus nurture --> a person is made, not born -Ex. is a concert pianist born that way or trained? -Heredity is not important -Behavior is an adaptation of the environment -Stimulus-response psychology --> how we adapt behavior to environment -Ivan Pavlov --> stimulus-response research -Trained dogs to salivate in response to a noise -Didn’t need to study humans anymore --> not studying the conscious -More control over animal subjects Gestalt -Study of perception -Study the conscious --> not behavior Psychoanalysis -Sigmund Freud --> treated mental disorders -Explains personality, motivation, mental disorder by focusing on unconscious as driving force -Looked inward at own fears/anxieties -Unconscious --> contains thoughts/memories below conscious that influences our behavior -ex. Slips of the tongue reveal true feelings -People are not masters of own minds -Behavior influenced by sexual urges -Still used today --> scientific methods study personality, motivation, abnormal behavior Radical Behaviorism -B F Skinner -Things tend to repeat behavior that leads to positive outcome & do not repeat behavior that leads to a negative outcome -Environment predicts behavior -Psych could predict behavior -Free will is an illusion --> environment controls people Humanism -Carl Rogers -Behaviorism & psychoanalysis were dehumanizing -Behaviorism = study of simple animals -Psychoanalysis = behavior is result of sexual urges -Uniqueness of human behavior -Emphasizes unique quality of humans --> freedom & growth potential -Optimistic view -Behavior is self-governed -Basic need to fulfill our potential Applied psych --> concerned with everyday problems Clinical psych --> diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Cognition --> mental processes in getting knowledge --> consciousness Ethnocentrism --> view that own group is superior & standards for judgment evolutionary psych --> behavioral processes in terms of adaptiveness of a species Positive psych --> uses theory/research to understand positive/creative/adaptive aspects of humans Psychiatry --> medicine that diagnoses/treats psychological disorders Empiricism --> knowledge is found through observation Culture --> shared customs, beliefs, and values, of a social community CHAPTER 2 3 MAJOR GOALS -Measurement & description -Use measurement techniques to describe behavior clearly -Understand & predict -Hypothesis --> relationship b/w variables -Explanation = understanding -Application & control -Understanding = control over phenomenon -Theory --> ideas that explain observations -Description = understanding -Test hypotheses from theory -Good theory = findings support hypotheses Steps in Scientific Investigation 1. Hypothesis -Variables clearly stated -Operational definition --> actions used to control variables 2. Methods -Empirical testing -Experiment -Case study -Surveys -Naturalistic observation 3. Collect data -Measurements -Empirical data 4. Analyze data -Statistics --> observations converted to numbers 5. Report findings -Summary -Publish the study -Weed out bad findings Advantages 1. Clarity/precision -Extremely specific 2. No error -People are very skeptical/look objectively -Empirical tests Experimental Methods Independent/Dependent Variables - x = independent variable - y = dependent variable -How x affects y Independent --> variable that experimenter controls to see effect on dependent variable Dependent --> affected by manipulation of the independent variable Experimental/Control Groups -Treated differently in terms of independent variable Experimental group --> special treatment for independent Control group --> no special treatment for independent -Ex. Dating abuse --> 18-week intervention program vs. child protective services -18 week program reduces the dating abuse frequency -Same except for diff treatment about independent variable -Diff on dependent variable = diff treatment of independent variable Extraneous Variables -Variables other than independent variable that influence the dependent variable Confounding variables --> two variables that are linking making it confusing to see effects -Ex. Extraneous & independent --> which is affecting dependent? -Random assignment to groups = control extraneous variables Variations in Experiments 1. One group = control group -Exposed to experimental & control conditions -No extraneous variables --> same people studied for both conditions 2. More than one independent variable -See whether the 2 variables interact to produce effect 3. More than one dependent variable ADVANTAGE OF EXPERIMENTS -Cause & effect relationships -Isolate interactions b/w variables DISADVANTAGES OF EXPERIMENTS -Too artificial --> extremely controlled setting to get certain results -Cannot answer specific questions --> application of findings to everyday life -Manipulations of some variables are impossible Descriptive/Correlation Method -Cannot control variables in the study -Cannot show cause & effect relationships -Only describe & show links b/w variables 1. Naturalistic Observation -Observations without interacting with the subject -Behavior happens naturally & in natural setting Strength --> study behavior in non-artificial settings Weakness --> trouble making observations without affecting the subjects 2. Case Study -Investigation of an individual subject -Psychological autopsies --> case study of a suicide victim -Techniques -Interviewing subject -Interviewing family -Direct observation -Looking at records -Psychological testing -Clinical psychologists analyze other case study to develop patterns --> general conclusions -Good for clinical psychology Weakness --> subjective -Researchers focus on information that leads to bias in their direction 3. Surveys -Questionnaires, interviews to get info on certain behaviors/attitudes -Gather info on social, economic, political views -Get info on behaviors that are hard to observe -Large samples of people --> generalize a larger population Weakness --> -Bad self-reported data --> memory loss, poorly worded answers, etc. -Sampling bias --> survey that gets info not representative of the rest of the population ADVANTAGE OF CORRELATION STUDIES -Answers that cannot be found through experiments DISADVANTAGE OF CORRELATION STUDIES -Cannot predict cause & effect -Only conclude that variables are casually related -Correlation cannot be scientifically verified STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVE -Organize/summarize data 1. Central tendency Median --> score that falls in the middle -Half above, half below Mean --> average of the scores -Most useful to calculate central tendency Mode --> most frequent score 2. Variability -How much scores differ from each other & the mean -Big variability = big standard deviation -Small variability = small standard deviation Standard deviation --> measure of how much variability in the scores 3. Correlation -Two variables are related -Correlation coefficient --> shows degree of relationship -Direction of correlation -Strength of correlation Positive correlation = two variables go in same direction -Positive X & positive Y -Negative X & negative Y Negative correlation = to variables go in opposite direction -Positive X & negative Y -Negative X & positive Y -Size of coefficient = strength of correlation - +1.00 to -1.00 - Closer coefficient is to +/- 1.00 = strongest - Predictability increases with size of coefficient - Correlation does not tell us cause & effect INFERENTIAL -Interpret data/draw conclusions -Used to see if results are partly due to chance Statistical significance --> probability of findings due to chance are low Meta-analysis --> results of multiple studies are used to find conclusions Placebo effect --> sugar pill -Subjects expectations make them think they are cured when in reality they had a placebo Self-report data --> subjects own accounts of behavior -Problems --> -Social desirability bias --> give socially approved answers -Ex. voting, giving to charity -Response set --> give unrelated answers to questions -Ex. Agreeing with everything on a survey Experimenter bias --> researchers expectations influence outcome of a study -See what you want to see Double blind procedure --> both experimenters & subjects do not know who is in the control group CHAPTER 5 Consciousness -Awareness of internal & external stimuli -William James --> stream of consciousness --> always changing -No one brain structure --> complex network of neurons produce it Mind wandering --> experience of other thoughts that are not task related controlled process --> control your thoughts automatic process --> what just happens EEG (electroencephalograph) --> records electrical brain activity -brain waves --> amplitude & frequency -changes indicated variations of consciousness 4 types of brain waves beta --> awake, alert, problem solving alpha --> relaxed, resting delta --> deep sleep, dreamless theta William Dement -first modern sleep clinic -discovered REM sleep --> rapid eye movements biological rhythms --> fluctuations in physiological functions -biological clocks circadian rhythms --> 24 hour biological cycles -ex. sleep patterns -people fall asleep when their body temperature declines --> awaken when it increases -ideal bedtime = better sleep quality -sleep quality vs. sleep quantity -still exist when exposure to light/external stimuli are removed -exposed to light --> retina receptors send signals to SCN --> pineal gland - -> secretes melatonin sleep debt --> less than amount of sleep you need -needs to be paid back hour for hour -jet lag --> readjust one day per time zone crossed -easier to adjust going westward --> day = lengthened Regulating Circadian Rhythms -melatonin --> regulates biological clock --> hormone -exposure to bright light Sleep -sleep labs --> use EEG & EMG & EOG -measures muscle activity & eye motions -depends on many neurotransmitters & parts of the brain Stages of sleep 1. awake to light sleep -1-7 mins -body temperature, breathing, muscle tension decline -alpha waves change to theta waves -hypnic jerks --> muscle twitches 2. sleep -10-25 mins -sleep spindles --> bursts of high energy brain waves -high amplitude, low frequency 3 & 4. slow wave sleep -30 mins -delta waves --> high amplitude, low frequency -go backward to cycle #1 --> then reach REM sleep REM sleep --> deep sleep with rapid eye movements, beta waves, vivd dreams -irregular breathing & pulse rate -paralyzed --> less muscle tension non-REM sleep (NREM) --> stages 1-4 -no rapid eye movements -less dreams -various EEG brain waves -five stages are cycled 5 times -more slow wave sleep in first half of cycle -more REM in the second half of the cycle co-sleeping --> children & parents sleep together napping trends --> shops close down for 2 hours so people can nap reticular formation --> runs through the core of the brainstem --> sleep & awakeness ascending reticular activating system --> afferent fibres through reticular formation that influence wakefulness Sleep Deprivation partial sleep deprivation --> not getting enough sleep over time selective deprivation --> type of partial sleep deprivation -rebound effect --> spend extra time in REM or NREM sleep to make up for deprivation memory consolidation --> firming up learning that has taken place during the day Sleep Disorders 1. insomnia --> chronic sleep problem -difficulty falling asleep -difficulty staying asleep -always waking up early pseudo-insomnia --> people think they are getting an inadequate amount of sleep -sleep state misperception -caused by -anxiety -tension -emotional problems -treatment = sedatives cons of sedatives -drowsy/tired -overdose -physical dependence -decrease time in REM sleep & slow wave sleep 2. narcolepsy --> going to sleep randomly -directly from awake into REM sleep 3. sleep apnea --> frequent gasping for air during sleep -stop breathing for up to 10 seconds -loud snoring 4. nightmares --> anxiety producing dreams -awakening from REM sleep 5. night terrors --> panic awakenings from NREM sleep -during stage 4 sleep 6. somnambulism --> sleepwalkin
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