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Psych-Midterm #1 Notes.doc

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

 Psychologists seek to describe explain and predict the occurrence of such behaviour  Pysche-soul  logos-study of a subject  Psychology-Study of the mind  German Wilhelm Wundt ◦ Campaigned to make psycho its own discipline ◦ Use to subcategory in Philosophy or Physiology  1879 Wilhelm established first lab of psycho at Uni of Leipzig ◦ Considered the founder of psych  Psych's primary focus was consciousness  New lab started by G. Stanley Hall ◦ Wilhelm's students ◦ Important in growth in American Psych ▪ Established John Hopkins Uni in 1883 ◦ Essential to theAmerican PsychologicalAssoication ▪ First President  Structuralism ◦ Edward Titencher ◦ The notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements and investigate how these elements are related ◦ identify components of conscious experience such as feelings, sensations ▪ Much of their research pertained to the 5 senses  Functionalism ◦ Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure ◦ James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey ▪ investigate mental testing, patterns of development, behaviour diff between sexes ◦ Margaret Floy Washburn ▪ First woman to receive Ph.D in psych ▪ Debunked theories among them include men inferior to women ◦ Mary Calkins ▪ First female president ofAPA  Many believe functionalism won out between structuralism ◦ Fostered 2 new subcategories ▪ Behaviourism ▪ Applied Psych  Behaviourism ◦ Theoretical orientation based on premise that scientific psych should be observable by behaviour ◦ John Watson ◦ Behaviour-any overt response or activity by an organism ◦ Believed in nurture  Psychoanalytic ◦ Freud ◦ explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders ◦ Believed behaviour is greatly influenced by how people deal with their sexual urges ◦ attempts to explain personality by focusing on unconscious determinants  Radical Behaviourism ◦ Harvard Skinner ◦ central in behavior and psych overall ◦ psychology could understand and predict behaviour without resorting to physiological explanations ◦ Fundemental principle ▪ Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral outcomes ◦ People are controlled by their environment ◦ Free will=illusion  Humanism ◦ theory blended between psychoanalytic and behaviourism ◦ Theory- orientations that emphasizes their unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for human growth ◦ Carl Rogers ◦ Abrham Maslow pg 13  Applied psychology ◦ Concerned with everyday practical problems ◦ Very prominent today  Clinical psychology ◦ Concerned wit the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders pg 15  Cognition ◦ mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge ◦ Jean Piaget ◦ Herbert Simon ▪ won nobel prize ◦ Has become the dominant perspective in contemporary psych  Donald Hebb ◦ highlighting the importance of physiological and neuropsychological perspectives and having paved the way for the recent cognitive perspectives  Ethnocentrism ◦ tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign regions  Evolutionary Psycho ◦ theoretical perspective that is likely to be influential in the years to come ◦ examines behaviour processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations ◦ Females are superior to males on spatial skills ◦ David Buss  1990's ◦ psych was witnessing the birth of its first major new theoretical perspective since cognitive revolution  Martin Seligman ◦ New pres ofAPA ◦ Launched new initiative known as Positive Psych Movement ▪ Begin to catalyze a change in the focus of psychology from pre-occupation with only repairing the worst things in life to also building positive qualities ▪ Uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of life ▪ 3 ASPECTS  Positive Subjective Experience  Personal Strengths and Virtues  Positive Institutions and communities  Psychology- Science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems  7 major research area's in modern psych ◦ Developmental psych-development across life ◦ Social Psych-Role of social forces ◦ Experimental Psych-focuses on the traditional (5 senses) ◦ Physiological Psych-influence of genetic factors ◦ Cognitive Psych-higher mental processes ◦ Personality-understanding consistency in behaviour ◦ Psychometrics-measurement of behaviour and capacity  Applied Psych ◦ Clinical Psych-evaluate and diagnose psychological disorders ◦ Counselling Psych-Overlaps Clinical-Specialize in family, maritial or career ◦ Educational and school psych-work to improve curriculum design ◦ Industrial and Organizational Psych-variety of tasks in the business world  7 Crucial idea's of psych ◦ Psych is empirical ▪ Premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation ◦ Psych is theoretically diverse ▪ Theory-system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations ◦ Psych evolves in a sociohistorical context ▪ Progress in psychology affects trends, issues, and values in society  Behaviour is determined by multiple causes ◦ The complexity of behaviour may seem self-evident, people usually think in terms of single causes ▪ She failed cuz she is lazy  Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage ◦ Culture refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, value's, norms, institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations  Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour  People's experience of the world is highly subjective ◦ If we expect a certain image most likely we will see this image Chapter 3  Sandra Wilson ◦ most extensive collections of preserved human brains  Neurons ◦ Individual cells that receive, integrate and transmit information ◦ Aminority receive signals from outside the nervous system and carry messages that move the body  Soma/Cell Body ◦ contains nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells  Dendrties ◦ parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information  Axon ◦ long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands  Myelin sheath ◦ insulating material derived from glial cells that encases some axons ◦ Speeds up transmission signals moving along the axon  Info is received at the dendrites, is passed through the soma and along the axon and is transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called synapses  Glia ◦ cells found throughout the nervous system providing support for neurons
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