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PS101 Lecture & Textbook Notes.docx

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Don Morgenson

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Psychology Section E Lecture 1  Complexity of human behaviour o Billions of neurons  Ethical Questions o Should we study human behaviour o Human torture to break people’s minds to reveal information for the greater good-is it ethical-consequentialism, serving the greater good o Deontologist- never exploit a human being no matter what the goals or how noble  Prejudice o People have fear of studying themselves o Copernicus- earth orbits around the sun o Darwin- humans and animals are not so different o Freud- we think unconsciously we are not in control all of the time  Religion o Adam and eve eat from the tree of knowledge and god was angry o Quest of knowledge gives possibility of discovering terrible things about oneself  Science is now re defining reality- technology Lecture 2  Kids who threaten murder parents o Pyromaniacs o Cruelty to animals  How much are the conditions such as psychosis depression nature or nurture?  Does media influence conduct disorders?  Bio psychological social model- tissue influences how you think about yourself, how you think about yourself affects how you view others  Mental condition is directly related to physical wellbeing-affects tissues o Woman lost lots of weight eating fish which was full of mercury and this caused her disorders  Animism- every material object has a spirit/soul, every plant, animal, star contains a second being  Plato anticipated many conflicts we face today  Plato felt that the world of ideas was much higher than the material world- aim for perfection in world ideas  Aristotle- first kind of empiricism-body does the minds bidding, understand body to understand mind, biological form of psychology o Experimentation o Observation  John Locke wrote a paper that when we come into the world with a blank state our life experience fill that state encouraging modern empirical  Mind consists of separate structures and can be identified through the method of introspection  Functionalism- wanted to answer what the mind is for  Charles Darwin- mind helps one adapt, evolution- survival of the fittest  Behaviourism- focusing on behaviour, personality Lecture 3  Perception- see patterns, if you don’t see pattern one perceives pattern  Closure is extremely important in relationships  Freud compromised integrity by his radical way of looking at human behaviour  Freud said that children fantasize about sexual relations daughters having sex with fathers and sons having sex with mothers  Psychoanalysis- most behaviours are unconscious libido-measure of sexual energy  Humanistic existentialist  Prometheus gave man fire  Society emphasizes conformity, depersonalization  Behaviour contains lots of spontaneity o Unique o Internal control o Able to choose, responsible for choices  Radical behaviourism- extremes Ways of doing research  Recording behaviour and making observation  Case study- is not nomothetic, video graphic- limited in generalizations  Squaring the correlation of variables New Lecture  Statistics help collect, organize, interpret data o Must know range of data to interpret o Characteristics of people are Polygenetically inherited o Most people have characteristics of both extrovert and introvert-ambevert  Average-Mean  Middle Score- Median  Score that occurs most often- Mode o Central tendencies: Normal distribution when mean, median and mode fall on midpoint o Variability: extent to which statistics differ, calculate the range of scores by subtracting the lowest stat from the highest stat o Standard Deviation: any difference between a stat and the average score (mean) and then square it. To what extent does one score deviate from the mean  Homogenous- the same/similar  Percentile rank- how you did compared to others  Null hypothesis- no difference between two groups of performance st Not on 1 test  Peripheral nervous system o automatic nervous system  o somatic nervous system  Consciousness  1 pound of brain tissue is 50 times heavier than the spinal cord  A typical neuron will have many dendrites which bring nerve signal to neuron cell axon transfers message away from the neuron cell  Motor neuron- muscles and glands  Inter-neurons- in between sensory and motor neurons  Supporting neurons are glial cells that act as protective tissue  Neurotransmitters- responsible for speeding up or slowing down nervous impulses o Dopamine- anti psychotic drug drives dopamine levels down o Serotonin- SSRI increases serotonin for depression o Lobotomy cuts fibres from Thalamus to frontal lobe o Endorphins- natural opiate in brain, dulls pain  Neuron o Specific  Motor cortex if there is a tumor on right hemisphere of brain the left side of body would be paralyzed  Association cortex  Frontal lobe- last of the lobes to mature rd New Lecture Oct 3  Second Mid-term Oct 29 th  Chapters 3, 5 and 12  Will emphasis on sleep from the chapter about consciousness, will also go over specifics about the mid term is classes to come.   Ways the brain can heal itself  1.Collateral Sprouting: Damaged cells simply Form new branches (sprouts)  2.Substitution of function: using different parts of the brain to compensate for another part of the brain  3.Neurogenesis: The brain is capable of building new neurons   Endocrine system- the glands sends there messages through hormones, there way if communicating vital information is hormonal   The essential function of all these glands is sending messages to one another, the endocrines effect the central nervous system  Recovery time: how much time it takes to recover is vital. The recovery period sometimes seems prolonged depending on the anxiety levels within the body. Recovery is related to immune competence  Immune Systems: Millions of little soldiers that can attack and kill bacteria and antibodies. Immune competence, can go down for example during exam time when you are stressed. Your immune system can remember what viruses you have had and how to fight it.  T-cells go tot the sight of the infection and kill it , they go out immediately  Psychoneuroimmunology  Autonomic nervous system: Essentially meaning automatic, the sympathetic branch and the par-sympathetic branch. Sympathetic is the accelerator, speeding things up ,Para- sympathetic- slowing things down essentially the responses of our bodies.  Parasympathetic over compensation- if the parasympathetic worries to much it slows things down, it over compensates, that’s why people faint it goes to far and just shuts down  These four systems work together.  Start of Chapter 5  Consciousness: People seek to alter consciousness in different ways and all for different reason, it is an elusive concept.  People smoking a joint  Someone trying to be one with the universe  A professor starting their class  Willam james viewed consciousness and a continuous moving stream of thought and perception  Consciousness can control thought and behavior  Consciousness can be day dreaming and fantasy; it is a move from external to internal thought. New Lecture  Flying west-east – phase advance  Flying east- west – phase delay  Groggy drivers suffer from micro sleeps-10-20 seconds  Groggiest at 4am  Reduced short term memory with loss of sleep  Hypnos  Thanatos  Stage 1 of sleep- lasts 2 minutes may experience hallucinations, sensory experiences  Stage 2 of sleep- relaxation stage, lasts 20 minutes  Stage 3 of sleep- transitional stage  Stage 4 of sleep- deep sleep 30 minutes  After this stage pissing in the bed for children occurs o Rapid eye movement sleep after stage 4 o Paradoxical sleep- body is paralyzed but mind is aroused o Genital arousal during sleep  Why sleep is essential o Bodies recuperate brains repair themselves o Ecological niche-it fits where we are on the food chain high on the food chain. Rabbits get less sleep as they are near the bottom of the food chain  Sleep is implicated in our growth o New born babies will sleep 2/3 of their lives  In the first 2 hours of sleep the hippocampus brain chemicals plummet all the chemicals are dumped in the cerebral cortex, the cortex involves itself with an internal dialogue o In the first two hours the consolidation occurs and the info is sorted o 15% of Canadians deal with insomnia o Translent insomnia- may occur if having trouble with your boss or big exam o Learned insomnia- conditioning those who worry about falling asleep won’t fall asleep o Physiological insomnia- pain of arthritis, Alzheimer’s – tissue disturbance o Subjective Insomnia- person complains of insomnia but no actual sleep disturbance  Sleep apnea- disturbed during sleep- jerking awake, no breath  Obstructive apnea- soft tissues at back of throat and sag which cut off airways  Central apnea  Narcolepsy- trouble staying awake, deep sleep  Dreams-seen as an extension of reality, occur during REM sleep, men have more aggressive dreams, dream about what has happened in past 24 hours, freud argued waking lives tend to spill into dream lives  Manifest content- what you remember from your dreams  Latent content- what the dream means  Information processing theory-  Activation synthesis theory- argues that dreams represent disturbed sleep which has survival values when occasionally we are wakened by occasional neural bursts from brain stem. Dreams provide the brain with neural stimulation  Problem solving activities- as you dream you dream about creative solutions about problems facing you New lecture  Chapter 3- 16 questions  Chapter 5- 9 questions, sleep and dreaming  Chapter 12- 25 questions  Internalization- introjection, adopting others values in terms of ego  Projection- insist that others have the problems not yourself o Ridding uncomfortable feelings and project them onto others  Projective- deeper dynamics of personality  Rationalization- think of excuses and alibis for things we have or haven’t done to conclude that our behaviour is not illogical. Fail to achieve something- wasn’t worth it anyway  Repression- selective memory deep down in the subconscious  Reaction formation- conscious attitude is negative, subconscious attitude is positive or vice versa  Displacement- taking out frustrations on people with less power in society= scapegoats. Hitler and the jews  Regression- going back to a period of time when one felt more secure- being homesick  Sublimation- theory Freud argued that all creative endeavors is sublimated sexual energy  People are characterized  Thanatos- death instinct  Aros- life instinct  Eric fromm argued we can be divided into necrophalous individuals or bio_____-attracted life or attracted to death  Evil is anything that obstructs growth  Psychosexual development- libido moves around the body o Oral-> 0-1 ages libido in mouth. Breast milk, suki o Anal-> 1-3 libido in anus from defecating or not defecating-> toilet training o Phallic->3-5 giving up impulses for tendencies with mother o Latency-> o Genital->  Flaws in Freud’s theory o Can’t verify that it’s true. Theories/hypotheses are unfeasible. How do you know all boys have castration anxiety o Freud’s theory says nothing about a healthy lifestyle o Depends on adults memory of child memory is constructed and deconstructed o Argues it’s a development theory but didn’t do systematic checks on children  Jung Theory o How important opposing tendencies are. Psychologists have to deal with opposing factors and the balance of them. Discovered his own anima (female side) Amines (masculine aspects in a female) New Lecture  Eysenck- IQ 80% genes 20% environment o Environment more important than 20%  Empirical o Extraversion-need stimulation-suffer from low cortical arousal o Introversion- cortical arousal- do not need excitement  Genetic component to extraversion and introversion o Neuroticism o Emotional stability o Psychoticism  Gordon Alport o Personality consists of traits  Cardinal traits-altruism  Central traits- optimism, sense of humor, honesty  Secondary traits- prefer katy perry over taylor switft (not important) o 3 aspects of mature personality  Sense of empathy  Has sense of perspective  Has sense of humor  Susan Kobasa o How people are able to stay healthy under more stress o Hardiness- protects people from becoming ill under stress  People are characterized by commitment  Control-success is function of their skills, hard work. They are in control  Challenge-  Social cognitive approach o Make interpretations that influence behaviour o How we interact with the environment o Product and Architect of environment o Internal locus of control- control, can manipulate things to receive desired outcomes responsible for many of successes and occasional failure o External locus of control- maybe it is luck/fate, life determined by external factors-luck more important than hard work  Seligman o Learned helplessness-negative things will continue to happen which leads to hopelessness-depression o Explaining negative events  Internal- test was crazy not enough time but self is to blame  Global- I am a loser  Permanent- nothing is going to change  External- specific not global- just-temporary  Self ethicacy o Convinced one can achieve their goal  Humanistic approach o Holistic o Dispositional- disposed to grow to be creative to grow yourself o Maslow-hierarchy of needs- oxygen, food, nutrition, water  Self-actualization- fulfills growth that is in you, actualizing potential  Physiological needs- food, oxygen  Safety/Security needs-comfort, security, freedom from fear  Love needs- control is up, love affiliation goes down  Esteem needs o Rogers- environment corrupts good in us o 1. Struggle to continue to be genuine- drop the persona/masks o 2. Healthy relationships are acceptance- unconditional positive regard o 3. Empathy- judge people non judgementally  If self-concept is positive- will see world as positive place  Real vs ideal self o Problems with humanistic approach  Vague  Promotes self-indulgence, selfishness  Ignored tendency to pursue evil  Personality is more constructed of imagery than substance o Becoming authentic person you want to become is most urgent vocation  Love is mere style  Faith is style rather than substance-imagery th New lecture November 5  The medical model 1. Mind body dualism-separate individual from illness 2. Reductionism- reducing complex disorders to physics and chemistry 3. Single factor approach- identifying one factor as the problem 4. Illness vs health-  Abnormality o Subjective discomfort o Social non conformity-criminals, o Legal criteria- legal commitment New Lecture  Dissociate disorders- not being an integrated personality o Dissociative amnesia- people refuse to remember who they are undergo a flight state- assume a complete different identity- effects of anxiety o Dissociative identity disorder- most severe type of dissociate disorder o Schizophrenia- split personality, thought disorder o Iatrogenic disorders o Dissociate disorders are caused by sexual abuse in many cases  Mood Disorders o Episodic nature of disorders distinguishes mood disorders from others o Disease is pathological state, illness is response to pathological state-human suffering  There is an environmental factor that is a reason for the increase in depression o Environmental factor- society creates a “me” society o Places who are a close knit community tend to have barely anyone who suffers from depression  Cannot establish a community because of mobility o Breakdown of family leads to depression o Urbanization- has its own difficulties large and estranged o Erosion of faith o Lost faith of government o Paralyzed by too many choices o Possibly over diagnosing depression o Depression as a worldwide distributed neurotoxin  Major depression o People who undergo more than one major depression episodes o 4 symptoms- depressed mood, poor concentration, insomnia, suicidal o Women are twice the rate of depression than men New Lecture November 14 th  Dysthymia- chronic low level depression, not severe enough to be major depression o Introverted, low energy levels  Cyclothymia- like bipolar, mood fluctuations are not severe enough to make bipolar diagnosis, chronic  Early onset of depression- if depression occurred before 20 years of age- children have 57% of developing depression- genetic loading  Cognitive behavior approach- how we interpret negative events in our lives-alter negative schema o Internal-Global-Permanent->pre disposing to depression o Environment-Specific-Temporary  Night journey of the soul- artist suffers overwhelming experience  Depressed people experience ambivalence-uncertainty, doubt  Suicides occur mostly in the spring months  Usually 9 attempts for every completed suicide  When homicide levels are high suicide levels are low  1/5 of suicides leave notes o Remorse, no hostility that Freud perceived  Sigmund Freud argued that anyone who killed themselves wished to kill someone else o Argued that people who wish to be killed deserve to be killed  Men use more lethal means to commit suicide o Firearms  Being male, aged, physical illness, separated, divorced, loneliness, urbanization, economic regression greater risk of suicide  NASH- Natural Death Accidental Death Suicidal Death Homicidal Death st New Lecture November 21  Psychopath o Asocial- remains unsocialized, cannot delay gratification. Want things now. Pleasure seeker o Driven by unconscious impulses and desires- little understanding of themselves o Extremely impulsive o Aggression- resolve conflicts aggressively o Guiltless- no remorse for actions  Underdeveloped super ego  Lack of inner control conscious o Warped concept of love- incapable of loving and being loved. Lack empathy o Conscious 2 factors  Resistance to temptation  Guilt o Psychopath is not psychotic o No symptoms of being intellectually challenged o Unable to experience emotional component in personal behaviour- mimics human personality but cannot feel emotional meaning- semantic(study of meanings) dementia  No emotional meaning in relationships  Cortical immaturity o lobotomies create 2 kinds of individuals  Very apathetic and vegetable like  Psychopaths o Slow wave activity in the temporal lobes o Positive spike bursts in the temporal lobes  Limbic system- learn to inhibit a punished response o Some psychopaths have a fearlessness and do not learn to inhibit a punished response PS101 Study Test #1  Psychology is empirical- o The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation o Based on direct observation rather than reasoning, speculation or common sense  Psychology is theoretically diverse o A theory is a system of ideas used to explain a set of observations  Psychology evolves in a socio-historical context o Trends, issues and values in society influence psychology’s evolution  Behaviour is determined by multiple causes  Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage  Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour- nature versus nature, how biology shapes behaviour, how experience shapes behaviour, how scientists estimate the relative importance of each  Peoples experience of the world is highly subjective- people view the world through their own personal leses  Psych means the soul, logos refers to the study of a subject  Knowledge is inborn (nativism)  Knowledge is gained through experience (empiricism)  Aristotle theory of memory has three principles o Similarity o Contrast o Contiguity  Decartes argued for the dualism of mind and body that the mind and body were separate and different  Wilheilm Wundt is known as the founder of psychology o Primary focus was consciousness-the awareness of immediate experience  Structuralism- based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related o Wanted to examine the fundamental components of conscious experience such as sensations, feelings and images o Introspection systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience  Functionalism- based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure  Functionalist expert- William James o William’s illustrates how psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences  Functionalism fostered two descendants o Behaviourism- a orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour.  John Watson founded behaviourism who propsed that psychologists abandon consciousness to observe behaviour  Behaviourism could not study the thoughts wishes and feelings that might accompany behaviour  Behaviour is governed by the environment  Harvard Skinner emerged as central figure in behaviourism o Radical behaviourism- organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to negative outcomes o All behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli, people are controlled by their environment  “free will” is an illusion o Applied psychology- branch of psychology concerned with everyday practical problems  4 areas of specialization  Clinical psychology- concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders  Counselling psychology  Educational psychology  Industrial and organizational psychology  Cognition- the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge, thinking/conscious experience o Psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand behaviour  Stimulus- Any detectable input from the environment  Gestalt argued that psychology should continue to study conscious experience rather than behaviour  Sigmund Freud examined the unconscious- which contain thoughts, memories, desires that are below the surface of conscious awareness but are a great influence on behaviour o Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour  Emphasis on sexual urges  Humanism- theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans-freedom and potential for personal growth o Humanists take an optimistic view of human nature o Humanists Maslow and Rogers argued that behaviour is governed primarily by each individuals sense of self/self-concept  Hebb suggested that repeated stimulation leads to the development of cell assemblies which facilitate behaviour o Link between brain and behaviour  Western psychologists have paid little attention to how their theories apply to non-western societies or women compared to men o Civil rights movements, gay rights movement, womens rights movement raised doubts to whether psychology had adequately dealt with human diversity  Advances in communications, international trade bringing Westerners in contact with non-westerners  Western world became more of a mosaic  Ethnocentrism- the tendency to view ones own group as superior to others  Evolutionary psychology examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species  Positive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence  Psychology is the science that studies behaviour and the physiological cognitive processes that underlie it, profession that applies to the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems  Quantitative methods are to examine cause and effect relationships where variables are defined ahead of time  Theories permit psychologists to go from description of behaviour to the understanding of behaviour  Steps to scientific investigation o Formulate a testable hypothesis o Select a research method and design the study- experiements, case studies, surveys, observation  Various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies o Collect the data- procedures for making empirical observations and measurements o Analyze the data and draw conclusions- observations usually converted into numbers o Report the findings- share the findings with one another  An independent variable is a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable  A dependant variable is the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable  The experimental group receive some special treatment in regards to the independent variable o The control group do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group  Extraneous variables are variables other than the independent variable that is likely to influence the dependent variable in a study  Confounding variable is when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects  Random assignment of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group  Within subjects design- comparisons are made within the same group of participants  Between subjects design- comparison that are made between two different groups of participants  An interaction means that the effect of one variable depends on the effect of another  Experiments allow for cause and effect relationships between variables  Field experiments are research studies that are very much like real life  Descriptive correlational research methods- naturalistic observation, case studies+surveys  Investigators cannot control events to isolate cause and effect  Cannot demonstrate that two variables are causally related because they’re may be a third variable o Permit investigators to describe patterns of behaviour and discover links and associations between variables o Naturalistic observation- researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening with the participants o Case study- in depth investigation of an individual subject, involves analyzing a collection of case studies to look for patterns for general conclusions  Highly subjective o Reactivity occurs when a subjects behaviour is altered by the presence of an observer  Statistics is the use of mathematics to organize, summarize and interpret numerical data o Essential to understand and draw conclusions to research o Descriptive statistics-used to organize and summarize data o Inferential Statistics- used to interpret data and draw conclusions  When statistical calculations are not likely to be due to chance results are said to be statistically significant, exists when the probability that the observed finding are due to chance is very low  Central tendency used to measure statistics o The median-score that falls exactly in the centre of a distribution of scores o Mean-average of the scores, add em up and divide by # of scores o The mode- most frequent score in a distribution  Frequency polygon- a line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution  Frequency distribution- orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or group of scores  Negatively skewed distribution- scores pile up at the high end of the scale  Positively skewed distribution- score piles up at the low end of the scale  Variablilty- how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and the mean o Measuring variability: Range- subtract lowest score from the highest score  Standard deviation- index of the amount of variability in a set of data  Normal distribution- symmetrical, bell shaped curve that represents the pattern in which human characteristics are dispersed in the population  Percentile score- indicates the percentage of people who score at or below a particular score  Correlation- when two variables are related to each other o Correlation coefficient- is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables- indicates whether it is positive or negative and how strongly the two variables are related  Positive correlation- two variables co vary in the same direction, high scores on variable X are associated with high scores on variable Y, low scores on variable X are associated with low scores on variable Y  Strength of correlation- the size of the coefficient indicates the strength of an association between two variables, +1.00- -1.00, zero means no correlation at all/ the close to either 1 means a stronger relationship o Correlation does not tell us whether a cause and effect relationship exists between the two variables  Meta analysis- combination of the statistical results of studies of the same question, with an estimate of the size and consistency of a variables effects. o Uses results of many studies on a specific topic for analysis  Sample- a collection of subjects selected for observation in a study  Sampling bias- when a sample is not representative of the population which it was drawn  Placebo effect- occur when participants expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake or ineffectual treatment  Social desirability bias- tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself  Response set- a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions  Experimenter bias- occurs when a researchers expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained  Double blind procedure- research strategy where neither subjects or experimenters know which subjects are in the control and experimental group Chapter 4  Sensation- stimulation of sense organs, involves absorption of energy such as light or sound waves. Begins with stimulus  Perception- selection, organization and interpretation of sensory input, organizing and translating sensory input into something meaningful  Psychophysics- the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience  A threshold- dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect  Absolute threshold- for a specific type of sensory input is the minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect, define the boundaries of an organisms sensory capabilities  (JND) Just Noticeable difference-smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense ca
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