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PS101 - Final Exam Notes

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Lawrence Murphy

SUNDY ZHENG PS101chapter 1 evolution of psychologyWilhelm Wundt 18321920 Germany father of psych made psych independent from philosophy and physiology established 1st lab at university of Leipzig in 1879 focus was consciousnessthe awareness of immediate experience mind and mental processes between 1883 and 1893 24 new labs in US and Canada GStanley Hall 18261893 studied with Wundt contributed to the growth of psych in the USestablished USAs 1st research lab at John Hopkins University in 1883 1892 driving force behind the establishment of the American Psychological Association APA STRUCTURALISMled by Edward Titchener to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how they are relate sensation feelings images introspection the careful systematic self observation of ones own conscious experience FUNCTIONALISM led by William James belief that psych should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure natural selection heritable traits that provide a reproductive advantage will be passed on consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts vs structuralist viewstatic more interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the real world B o t h s c h o o l s f a d e d a w a yf u n c t i o n a l i s m w o nf o s t e r e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f b e h a v i o u r i s m a n d a p p l i e d p s y c hBEHAVIOURISM 1900s founded by John B Watson theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientic psych should only study observable behaviour asking psychologist to abandon the study of consciousness and focus on behaviours they could observe scientic methodveriabilitydownplayed the importance of heredity behaviour is governed by the environment nurture not nature relate responses to stimuli any detectable input from the environment stimulus response approach contributed to animal research in psychGestalt Psych Challenged Watson concerned with perception should continue to study conscious Sigmund Freud 18561939 Austria unconscious contains thought memories desires well below the surface of conscious awareness that exerts great influence on behaviour psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour people arent masters of their own minds by 1920 psychoanalytic theory was widely known around the world BF Skinner 19041990 influenced by Watson environment moulds behaviour organisms repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes all behaviour is governed by external stimuli PAGE 1SUNDY ZHENG PS101free will is an illusion HUMANISTIC VIEWSBehaviourism psychoanalytic theorydehumanizing Freud attacked for his belief that behaviour is dominated by sexual urges behaviourism attacked for its study of simple animal behaviour both said to suggest that humans are not masters of their own will and failed to see the uniqueness in human behaviour 1900s humanism opposes both of those theories emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth optimistic view of human nature Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow greatest contributions are their innovative treatments for psychological problems disorders PSYCHOLOGY IN CANADA Baldwin rst lab in Canada U of T in 1892 John Wallace Bairdrst Canadian Psychologist to be the president of APA 1918 PSYCH AS A PROFESSION Applied psych concerned with everyday practical problems clinical psych concerned with the evaluation diagnosis and treatment of individuals with psychological problems and disorders interviewing clients testing group and individual psychotherapy counselling overlaps with clinical provides assistance to people struggling with everyday problems often specialize in family marital or career counselling educational school to improve curriculum design achievement testing teacher training usually work in elementary or secondary schools where they test and counsel children having difculties in school industrial and organizational run human resources departments to improve morale and attitudes of staff increase job satisfaction and productivity in business and industry COGNITIONPHYSIOLOGY cognition mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge thinking in conscious experience Jean Piaget focused on childrens cognitive development Chomsky interest in underpinning of language cognitive perspective has become the dominant perspective in contemporary psychology the neuroscience perspective found in clinical personality and social psych CULTURAL DIVERSITYPSYCH majority of research done by middle to upper class white men with subjects in the same group as well ethnocentrism tendency to view ones own group as superior civil rights womens gay rights movements raised doubts on whether psych has death adequately with human diversity new interest in culture attributed to advances in communication travel international trade increased global interdependence ethnic makeup of the western world has become an increasingly diverse multicultural mosaic EVOLUTIONARY PSYCH examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations natural selection favours behaviours that enhance reproduction abilitiesevolutionary psychologists expelling ender differences in spatial ability and many other aspects in human behaviour in terms of how such abilities evolved to meet the adaptive pressures faced by our ancestors POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY used theoryresearch to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fullling aspects of human existence 3 areas of interest positive emotions happiness love gratitude hope positive individual traits personal strengths virtues courage creativity kindnesspositive institutions and communities civil discourse strong families supportive neighbourhood communitiesPAGE 2
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