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PS270- Final Exam Review 2of2.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Christian Jordan

Chapter 6: Conformity Conformity: a change in behavior or belief caused by real or imagined social pressure 1. Public Compliance 2. Private Compliance Obedience: Changes in behavior in response to the commands of an authority figure. Example: Lt. William Calley and the My Lai Massacre. Bad Conformity: when it leads to someone drinking and driving Good Conformity: when it inhibits people from cutting in front of us in a theatre line Inconsequencel Conformity: when it disposes tennis players to wear white *Key is will your behavior and beliefs be the same when you are apart from a group. Different Varieties of Conformity… Compliance: conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing. Example: wearing a bowtie or dress Obedience: acting in accord with a direct order. Example: comply to reap an award or avoid a punishment Acceptance: conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressures. Example: believing that exercise is healthy. Kinds of Social Influence  Conformity: group standards or norms  Compliance: direct requests  Obedience: direct commands Soloman Asch‘s Group Pressure Study  Participants judged which of three comparison lines matched the standard line  Unambiguous line judgment task  Hear others responses first  Would we ever yield to coercion to hurt another? Stanly Milgram wondered.  Start with neutral trials  12 critical trials- everyone else gives the wrong answer o Results: 76% of participants, 37% of responses on critical trials o Note: control participants tested individually made essentially no errors Auto Kinetic Phenomenon: self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark. Perhaps you have experienced this when thinking you have spotted a moving satellite in the sky, only to realize later that it was merely an isolated star. What predicts Conformity? Group Size Unanimity: conformity is reduced if the model behavior or belief is not unanimous Cohesion: the more cohesive a group the more power it gains over members Status: higher status people tend to have more impact Public Response: people conform more when they respond publicly in front of others rather than writing their answer privately No Prior Commitment: a prior commitment to a certain behavior or belief increases the likelihood that a person will stick with the commitment rather than conform. Why do people conform? Normative Influence: the desire to be accepted and fit in. Public vs. Private responses Informational Influence: the desire to be right. Ambiguous tasks, crisis situations; can insight contagion Social Power: the potential to influence other and to resist influence by others. Can arise from many sources: Coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent power Obedience: changes in behavior in response to the commands of an authority figure Stanley Milgram‘s Obedience Study  Studies what happened when the demands of authority clash with the demands of conscience  Two men come into a psychology lab to participate in a study of the effect of punishment on learning.  Experiment requires one of them to teach a list of word pairs to the other and to punish errors by delivering shocks of increasing intensity What breeds obedience?/ Factors affecting Obedience The Victim‘s distance  Milgram‘s participants acted with greatest obedience and least compassion when the ―learners‖ could not be seen.  People act more compassionately to those who are personalized Closeness and legitimacy of the authority  Physical presence of the experimenter also effected obedience.  When Milgram gave the commands by telephone. Full obedience dropped with about 21%  Other studies confirmed that when the one making the request is physically close, compliance increases  Authorizes must be perceived as legitimate Institutional Authority  Is the prestige of the authority important? The Liberating effects of group influence  Conformity can also be constructive  Example: the heroic figures who rushed into the flaming world trade center were incredibly brave, but also they were partly obeying their superiors, partly conforming to group loyalty Who Conforms? Personality: good predictors of average conformity, bad predictors or specific acts of conformity. Culture: culture socializes people to be more or less socially responsive Social Roles: social roles involve a certain degree of conformity and conforming expectations is an important task when stepping into a new social role. Reactance: a motive to protect or restore ones sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action. Why do people obey?  Unfamiliar situations  Transfer of responsibility  Gradual, incremental nature Impression Formation and Power (Fiske)  People with power: may be less motivated to process information about subordinates accurately  Rely on stereotypes more  This may contribute to gender and ethnic discrimination in the workplace  Subordinates: more motivated to carefully observe supervisors characteristics and behavior  Focus on individuating information  May allow greater perceptions of control, and greater ability to predict important outcomes Stevens and Fiske (1995)  Manipulated power in dyads  People with power (relative to their less powerful partners) were‖ o Less interested in individuating information about their partner o Made more stereotypes, biased attributions about their partners. Sexual Harassment  men are more often in positions of power and control important outcomes  they may stereotype more and categorize women as traditions, or ‗sexy‘ types Depends on:  Perceived norms o Correlational evidence  Individual differences o Likelihood to sexually harass scale Particiapnts: High or Low LSH mean  Watched a manager help an attractive female with a word-processing task  The manager either was sexually harassing, or friends but professional  Then participants had to interact with the attractive confederate  Observed uninvited physical contact and sexual comments Automatic Link between power and sex (Bargh et al.)  Some men may be unaware that they associate power with sex  High LSH men have sex primed by power  When power is (unobtrusively) primed, high LSH rated a female confederate as more attractive Chapter 7: Group Influence Group: two or more people, who for longer than a few moments, interact with an influence one another and perceive one another as ‗us‘  Members interact  Needs and goals rely on each other  Mutual influence  Establish group norms  Size: 2-6  Cohesiveness: qualities that bind members together and promote liking Three examples of social collective influence: social facilitation, social loafing, deindividuation. Social Facilitation: how are we affected by the presence of others? Presence of others can help performance  Original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present  Current meaning: the strengthening of likely responses owing to the presence of others Co-actors: group of people working simultaneously and individually on a non- competitive task  Cockroach‘s study (Zajonc et al.) Presence of other diminishes efficiency  Winding fishing line people would work faster when they worked with co- actor than they would alone  Presence of others improves the accuracy in which people do simple motor tasks  Others Arousal Dominant Response Reasons for arousal… Mere Presence: mere presence of other produces some arousal even without evaluation apprehension or arousing distracting. Ex. Cockroach behaviour Evaluation apprehension: concern for how others are evaluating us. Not just mere presence Distraction-conflict: non-social distractions Social Facilitation vs. loafing  Social Facilitation: other people are around, not participating in the activity. Individual efforts are easily observed  Social Loafing: other people are performing the same activity. Individual efforts are unclear. Social Loafing: The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts towards a common goal than when they are individually accountable. Do individuals exert less effort in a group?  Tug of war  Tug of war apparatus (Kravits and Martin): founds that collective effort of tug of war teams was half the sum of the individual efforts.  This suggested that group members may actually be less motivated when performing additive tasks  Percentage of individual performance declines as group size increases Free riders: people who benefit from the group but give little in return. Jackon & Williams (1985)  Participants worked on simple or complex mazes, another participant did the same mazes  Evaluated individually or averaged  Participants were more relaxed when their scored were not individually evaluated Gender Differences  Who is more likely to slack off in groups where individual efforts are hidden?  Karau & Williams: 150+ studies.  Men loaf more than women. Women are more collectivist and other- oriented. Men are more individualistic Deindividualizaition: loosening of normal constraints on behavior, leading to more impulsive and deviant acts. Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in-group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual.  Group Size  Physical anonymity  Arousing and distracting activities Diener et al(1976) trick or treaters more likely to deindividuate when they are in a group and anonymous Situational cues Johnson & Downing (1979) KKK/ Nurses  In their study, the people delivering the shocks wore either Ku Klux Klan robes or nurse‘s uniforms. The subjects in the KKK costumes shocked more than control groups, and those in nurse‘s uniforms shocked less The Darkened Chamber: Gergen(1973)  Deindividuation enhanced affectionate behavior  Couples who were deindividuated using a dark chamber displayed significantly more affection behavior such as touching and caressing in comparison to individuated couples in a light chamber Uniforms  Identical uniforms can reduce a sense of personal identity. Feel less accountable, act more aggressively Group Polarization: do groups intensify our opinions? Group-produced enhancement of member‘s pre-existing tendencies; a strengthening of member‘s average tendency, not a split between the groups  Two explanations for its occurance  Persuasive Arguments: Informational influence, tend to hear arguments favoring initial position; get new information  Social Comparison: normative influence, want to hold desirable opinions, try to outshine others Pluralistic Ignorance: a false impression of how other people are thinking, feeling or responding.  Believing one‘s private attitudes differ from others‘, even though one‘s public behavior are the same. Example: asking questions in class, drinking on campus  Misperceiving the norm  Don‘t realize that others advice may me more extreme than ones own  Discussion reveals this fact, and leads to more extreme recommendations Groupthink: the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. Reducing groupthink:  To avoid groupthink a leader can… 1. Avoid taking a directive role 2. Solicit advice and opinions from people outside the group 3. Solicit opinions anonymously, as by secret ballot Leadership: the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group Influence of Minority: sometimes a minority can influence and even overturn a majority person. Chapter 8: Altruism: Helping Others Altruism: a motive to increase another‘s welfare without conscious regard for one‘s self interest. Opposite of selfishness The desire to help another person even if it doesn‘t involve a benefit, or a cost to the helper. Prosocial Behavior: any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person. What motivates helping? Social Exchange theory: the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize their own rewards and minimize their costs. People will only help when the rewards outweigh the costs of helping. (that is, there is no true altruism)  Distress; social approval; self-worth; reciprocity Rewards: may be internal or external. Example of External: when businesses donate money to improve their corporate image Example of Internal: blood donors, leave tips for waiters Egoism: a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase your own welfare. The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase someone else‘s welfare. Empathy and Altruism Empathy: the ability to experience events and emotions the way another person experiences them Empathy-altruism hypothesis: empathy leads to helping for purely altruistic reasons, regardless or personal gains (C. Daniel Batson)  Batson believes that if someone is empathetic they will help regardless of the reward and cost. Looking for Altruism (Toi & Batson 1982)  Participants listen to ―radio programs‖  Get on pilot program to hear  Interview with Carol, who was in a bad car accident. Now in a wheelchair  Will participants help Carol by sharing their course notes with her?  Empathy manipulations  Results of Percent agreeing to help Carol o Low Empathy: If Carol is NOT in class 35 agree to help. If Carol is in the Class 72 agree to help o High Empathy: If Carol is NOT in class 72 agree to help. If Carol is in the class 79 agree to help The Kitty Genovese Murder  Murdered while her neighbors watch  37 witnesses, only one called the cop, upon arrival of the police. Kitty was already dead.  Bystander effect  Why didn‘t anyone call the police? Diffusion of Responsibility Bystander Intervention  Darley and Latane  Unconvinced by the Apathy explanation. Thought the number of bystanders might have been the real issue.  More bystanders= less likliehood of helping  Bystander Intervention Research clip (Zimbardo) o Shows two experiments of the bystander effects. Man who looks drunk (not likely to be helped), man in suit (many people help), women in casual clothes (not likely to be helped right away). o Ought to help, and ought to do what everyone else is doing People are more likely to help when they witness others helping. The Good Samaritan Study  Seminary Students  Had to deliver a speech nearby  Late or not late (plenty of time)  Man slumped in doorway, groaning  How many stopped to help?  Not late- 63%  Late- 10% Interpreting the Event Situational Ambiguity: In ambiguous situations, (i.e., it is unclear that there is an emergency) people are much less likely to offer assistance than in situations involv­ing a clear-cut emergency. They are also less likely to help in unfamiliar environments than in familiar ones (e.g., when they are in strange cities rather than in their hometowns).  Informational influence: look to others to help define the situation. Look at their reactions  Pluralistic Ignorance: Everyone looks to everyone else and no one reacts Assuming Responsibility  Seizure Study  Internet Chatroom study o Non-emergency hlping o Yahoo! Chat groups (2-19 people) o Whole Group asked- the more people were there, the longer it took for a response o One person asked- that person responded quickly regardless of group size Implement the Decision to help  If someone clearly sees an emergency, takes responsibility and knows how to help, they still might not help…  Barriers to helping: o Embarrassment o Fear of personal risk or making things worse What to do if you need help  Attract notice, define as an emergency, single someone out (e.g., You in the red hat), tell that person exactly what you need; be specific Reactions to Being Helped  Equity Theory: people want equitable relationships (not just maximum rewards). Ones persons ratio of rewards to costs should be equal to the other perosns  Being in an inequitable relationship causes distress  Recipient of help may feel negatively towards the helper if there is no chance to reciprocate  Social Exchange theory: maximize rewards and minimize costs  Helper gets an increased sense of power from helping. A reward that can motivate helping  Recipient gets an increased sense of powerlessness (has to acknowledge dependence)  Self-threat theory: getting help can threaten self-esteem, if it: o Conveys the message that the recipeient is inferior and needs help to avoid failure o Help deviates form important values (independence, self-reliance, and fairness) o Does not increase chances of future success or reduce future need for help Door-in-the face technique: a strategy for gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request, the same requester counter offers with a more reasonable request Moral exclusion: the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which you apply moral values and rule of fairness Moral inclusion: regarding others as within your circle of moral concern Chapter 9: Aggression Aggression: physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. Intentional harm whether successful or not Hostile Aggression: stems from anger and aims at hurting another person Instrumental aggression: also intended to hurt, but in order to achieve another goal Studying Aggression in the Lab: The aggression Machine  Leave it up to the participant to choose how intense of a shock to deliver. Greater shock would mean greater aggression. Influences: neural influences, genetic influences, biochemical influences (alcohol, testosterone, low serotonin, interaction between biology and behavior) Situational Factors: Alcohol Intoxication  Alcohol lowers self awareness  MacDonald, Zanna & Holmes study o Married of dating participants recalled a relationship conflict o Then drank vodka, a placebo drink, or no drink o Intoxicated: Expressed more negative emotions in response to the conflict, had more negative views of their partner Pain and Discomfort  Pain: Animals in pain, who cannot escape will almost invariably attack. Cold immersion and aggression  Temperature: likelihood of riots and violent crime, Road rage (or honking) and A/C, professional baseball o Number of players hit during Major league baseball game increased, as temperature increased  Experimental Data o Participants in a hot room (32 degrees celsius) rather than a normal room: Report feeling more aggressive o Express more hostility toward a stranger ( Griffitt & Veitch, 1971) o Complete ambiguous stories with aggressive acts (Taylor & Dobbs, 1987) Aggression as a Response to Frustration  Frustration-aggression theory: the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress  Frustration: anything that blocks achievement of a goal of gratification.  Two postulates: 1. Frustration always leads to aggression (could be displacement) 2. Aggression always results from frustraction  (Weaker) Frustration will increase the probability of an aggressive response  Frustration increases aggression. Example: Children wanting to play with toys (Barker) o More so when the goal is close. Ex. Cutting in front of people in line (Harris) o When frustration is unexpected. Ex. Telemarketing study Provocation and Reciprocation  High-order cognition plays a role  Is frustration the result of an intentional act of harm or insult? o An eye for an eye o Highschool student scenarios o Criticism and insults (Baron, 1988)  Use of aggression can also affect perceptions of hostile intent The Dark Side of High self-esteem (person x situation)  Self-Threat negative feelings aggression  Traditional view: low self-esteem people are more aggressive  High self-esteem: competent,, proud, self-assured OR conceited, arrogant, narcissistic. Threatened Egotism (Bushman and Baumeister, 1998)  Essay-writing task, with evaluation  Ego threat manipulation: ―This is one of the worst essay I have ever read!‖ or ― No suggestions, great essay!‖  RT rask with ―stressful, noisy stimuli‖  Chose intensity and duration of noise the other person would receive  Competed against the person who evaluated essay or someone else Social Exclusion  School shootings related to social isolation and rejections?  Meet first with 4 or 5 other students  Nominate the two they would most like to work with  If no one picked the participant: o Blast insulting confederate with white noise o A considerable level of aggression  Associationist Theory (Berkowitz):Cues associated with aggression can stimulate aggression Aggressive Cues 1. The Weapon Effect (Berkowits & LePage (1967) 2. Team colours and aggression in sports a. Franck & Gilovich (1988) b. Study 1: Penalties c. Study 2: Effects on study of aggression? Is the effect due to increased aggression of biased perception? d. Study 3: Effects on aggressive behavior Media Effects  Effects on aggressive sexual depictions on violence against women  Effects of TV an video game violence Media Influence: Effects of Violent Sexual Depiction  Effect of viewing violence against women  Attitudes and beliefs (Malamuth &Check study) 1. Two films depicting sexual violence 2. Two films depicting sex, with no violence Examined:  Attitudes about violence against women  Rape myth acceptance Sample Items: Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence Toward Women  ―Being roughed up is sexually stimulating to many women‖  ―A man is sometimes justified in hitting his wife‖  ―Sometimes the only way a man can get a cold women turned on it to use force‖ Rape Myth acceptance scale  ―A woman who goes to the home of a man on their first date implies that she is willing to have sex"  ―In the majority of rapes, the woman is promiscuous or has a bad reputation‖  ―Many women have an unconscious desire to be raped and may then unconsciously set up situations in which they are likely to be attacked‖ Results: Acceptance of Interpersonal violence was
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