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ps275 Chapter 9-16 key term Review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS275
Professor
Diane Glebe
Semester
Fall

Description
Developmental Chapter 9 Review: Memory Multistore model: Richard Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) discovered this model of the information-processing system; understands how people think Sensory store/sensory register: the systems log in unit; holds raw input as a kind of “afterimage” or “echo” of what you have sensed; holds large quantities of information for very brief milliseconds. Extremely volatile Short-term-storage: (working memory) a processing unit that can store a limited amount of info (5-9 pieces) for several seconds; stores information temporarily so you can do something with it Long-term-storage: vast and relatively permanent storehouse of information Executive control processes:  Regulate attention  Select appropriate memory processes and problem solving strategies  Monitor quality of tentative answers and solutions Metacognition: knowledge about cognition and about the regulation of cognitive activities Knowledge base: what kids know about the things they are thinking about; existing information Memory span: measure of the amount of information that can be held in working memory Span of apprehension: the number of items a person can keep in mind at one time while attending to something different Strategies: goal directed and deliberately implemented mental operations used to facilitate task performance Production deficiency: failure to spontaneously generate and use known strategies that could help to improve learning and memory Utilization deficiency: failure to benefit from effective strategies that one has spontaneously produced  Requires too much mental effort that kids have few cognitive resources to gather and store information relevant to the problem  New strategies are often intrinsically interesting; kids used schemas just solely for joy of having it  Young kids in particular may know less about how to monitor their cognitive activities and fail to realize they are failing to benefit from a new strategy Adaptive strategy choice model: how strategies change over time; the view that multiple strategies exist within a child’s cognitive repertoire at any one time, with these strategies competing with one another Fuzzy trace theory: theory proposed by Brainerd and Reyna that postulates that people encode experiences on a continuum from literal, verbatim traces to fuzzy, gist-like traces Attention span: capacity for sustaining attention to a particular stimulus or activity Reticular formation: area of the brain that activates the organism and is thought to be important in regulating attention Selective attention: capacity to focus on task-relevant aspects of experience while ignoring irrelevant or distracting information Inhibition: the ability to prevent ourselves from some cognitive or behavioural response  Neurological maturation contributes to the development of inhibitory control  Maturation of the frontal lobes play a major role in permitting us to inhibit various thoughts and behaviours Event memory: long-term memory for events; stored memories of events such as what you ate for breakfast this morning Autobiographical memory: memory for important experiences or events that have happened to the individual; “natural memories of you” Strategic memory: processes involved as one consciously attempts to retain or retrieve information; remembering telephone numbers, how to get to the movie theatre, the words to “O Canada” Mnemonics: effortful techniques used to improve memory, including rehearsal, organization and elaboration; “ROY G BIV = red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet) Infantile amnesia: lack of memory for the early years of ones life  Freud thought infantile amnesia simply reflected our tendency to repress the emotional conflicts of early childhood Script: general representation of the typical sequencing of events in some familiar context; schemas for certain experiences that preserve the ordering and causal relations among the events that unfold Children and eyewitness testing:  Leading questions suggest inaccurate facts or events  Children who have experienced repeated events are less likely to make errors than children who have experienced only one event and are less suggestible  Plausibility is an important factor Rehearsal: repeating something over and over again until we think it is memorized Cumulative rehearsal: rehearse word clusters Semantic organization: strategy for remembering that involves grouping or classifying stimuli into meaningful or manageable clusters that are easier to retain Elaboration: strategy for remembering that involves adding something to or creating meaningful links between bits of information we are trying to remember (linking a word with a picture) Retrieval: strategies aimed at getting information out of the long-term store Free recall: recollection of information that is not prompted by specific cues; this is the process where an individual is asked to recall a list of data he or she was given in any order. This process shows up instances of primacy and recency effects in the retrieval of memories Cued recall: recollection that is prompted by a cue associated with the setting in which the recalled event originally occurred; A cue is a trigger, a subconscious reminder such as a song, taste or state of mind. Cued recall tests involve asking the person to remember a list of data in a particular order or a certain item from it Metamemory: knowledge about memory and memory processes; kids display Metamemory if they recognize that there are limits to what they can remember, that some things are more effective that others at helping them to remember Reasoning: a particular type of problem solving that involves making inferences; you must go beyond the information given Analogical reasoning: reasoning that involves using something you already know to help reason about something not known yet; based on similarity relations  Often assessed on intelligence tests and gifted children Relational primacy hypothesis: the hypothesis that analogical reasoning is available in infancy Learning to learn: improvements in performance on novel problems as a result of acquiring a new rule or strategy from the earlier solution of similar problems Cardinality: the knowledge that the last word in a counting sequence “one, two, three, four, five” represents the number of items in a set; principle specifying that the last number in a counting sequence specifies the number of items in a set Connectionism: field of cognitive science that seeks to understand mental processes as resulting from assemblies or groups of real or artificial neurons Developmental Chapter 11 Review: Language and Communication Skills Language: a small number of individually meaningless symbols (sounds, letters, gestures) that can be combined according to agreed-on rules to produce an infinite number of messages Communication: the process by which one organism transmits information to and influences another Vocables: unique patterns of sound that a prelinguistic infant uses to represent objects, actions or events Psycholinguists: those who study the structure and development of children’s language Phonology: the sound system of a language and the rules for combining these sounds to produce meaningful units of speech Phonemes: the basic units of sound that are used in spoken language Morphology: the rules governing the formation of meaningful words from sounds Semantics: the expressed meaning of words and sentences Morphemes: smallest meaningful language units Free morphemes: morphemes that can stand alone as a word (i.e. cat, go, yellow) Bound morphemes: morphemes that cannot stand alone but that modify the meaning of free morphemes Syntax: the structure of a language; the rules specifying how words and grammatical markers are to be combined to produce meaningful sentences Pragmatics: principles that underlie the effective and appropriate use of language in social contexts Sociolinguistic knowledge: culturally specific rules specifying how language should be structured and used in particular social contexts Linguistic universal: an aspect of language development that all children share Language acquisition device: Chomsky’s term for the innate knowledge of grammar that humans were said to possess, which might enable young children to infer the rules governing others’ speech and to use these rules to produce language Universal grammar: in nativist theories of language acquisition, the basic rules of grammar that characterize all language Language-making capacity: hypothesized set of specialized linguistic processing skills that enable children to analyze speech and to detect phonological, semantic and syntactical relationships Broca’s Area: structure located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that controls language production Wernicke’s area: structure located in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for interpreting speech Sensitive-period hypothesis: the notion that human beings are most proficient at language learning before they reach puberty Pidgins: structurally simple communica
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