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WS midterm review

Women & Gender Studies
Course Code
Lorraine Vander Hoef
Study Guide

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wWS100OC Midterm Review
In preparation for the midterm exam, be sure to have read online Lessons/Modules 1-6 under your course
Content files, as well as Ch. 1-5 and the articles assigned from your Course Reader for weeks 1-6 on your
Weekly Schedule.
The midterm exam will consist of 50 multiple choice questions derived from the following review
1. Be able to define the following terms:
a. Gender
- characteristics that one uses to distinguish themselves between the different sexes. How
one expresses themselves regardless of their sex
- Gender refers to how we are socialised into particular male or female roles in society.
- Gender concerns what it means to be a woman or a man in society, it involves the way
society creates, patterns and rewards our understandings of femininity and masculinity
- defined as the way our society organizes understandings of sexual difference
b. Patriarchy
- a system where males dominate because power and authority are in the hands of adult
- many men are supporters of women‘s rights and that many of the goals of the women‘s
movement benefit men as well, although being a supporter of women‘s rights does not
necessarily translate into men understanding how everyday privileges associated with
masculinity maintain entitlements in a patriarchal society
(heteropatriarchy ensures straight male right of access to women. Ideology that
woman is for a man)
c. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
- claims men will forever try to enslave women
- seen as the first important expression of the demand for women‘s equality, although the
beginning of the women‘s movement in the United States is usually dated to the Seneca
Falls Convention of 1848.
- one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy
- Wollstonecraft responds to those educational and political theorists of the 18th century
who did not believe women should have an education
- Wollstonecraft was prompted to write the Rights of Woman after reading Charles
Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord's 1791 report to the French National Assembly, which
stated that women should only receive a domestic education; she used her commentary
on this specific event to launch a broad attack against sexual double standards and to
indict men for encouraging women to indulge in excessive emotion. Wollstonecraft wrote
the Rights of Woman hurriedly in order to respond directly to ongoing events; she
intended to write a more thoughtful second volume but died before completing it.
d. Lesbian feminism
- emergence throughout the ―first world‖ in the 1970‘s and 1980‘s
- focus of this radical approach is the private sphere of everyday individual consciousness
and change
- radical feminism offshoot
- focuses on how compulsory heterosexuality (the cultural norm that assumes and
requires heterosexuality) and heterosexual privilege ( the rights and privileges of
heterosexuality, such as legal marriage and being intimate in public) function to maintain
power in society .
e. Lesbian baiting
- feminists are accused of being lesbians in an effort to discredit feminism and prevent

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women from both joining the movement and and from taking women‘s studies classes
- a common tactic used by the military in order to keep women within their defined
gender roles. Lesbian baiting "is an attempt to control women by labelling us as lesbians
because our behaviour is not acceptable, that is, when we are being independent
- homophobia functions to maintain this as an insult
- considerable fear associated with being called a lesbian and declaring that all feminists
are lesbians serves to keep women in line apart from one another, and suspicious of
feminism and women‘s studies.
f. Third-wave Feminism ** email her about different dates online and text
- many writers refer to this time of feminist activity influenced by postmodernism and
multiracial feminism which problematizes the universality and potential inclusivity of the
term woman
- origins in the 1990s and reflects the thinking, writing, activism of women and men who
tended to come of age taking for granted the gains of second wave feminism, as well as
the resistance or backlash to it
- third wave perspectives are shaped by the material conditions created by globalization
and techno culture, and tend to focus on issues of sexuality and identity
- contemporary third wave activity has been important in fuelling feminist activism,
especially through musical and art forms, various ―rages‖ or ―zines‖ and the use of
electronic information and entertainment and virtual technologies generally
- emerged in the 1980‘s and forced white feminists in particular that their view of the
world failed to accommodate the more complex oppression of women of colour.
- global women, 90‘s, broader than white middle class women‘s issues, gender and
g. Transnational feminism
- the movement for the social, political and economic equality of women across national
- still alive and well
- useful for political alliances across national borders
- is a contemporary paradigm. The name highlights the difference between international
and transnational conceptions of feminism, and favours the latter. As a feminist approach,
it can be said that transnational feminism is generally attentive to intersections among
nationhood, race, gender, sexuality and economic exploitation on a world scale, in the
context of emergent global capitalism.
h. Compulsory heterosexuality
- the expectation that everyone should be heterosexual
- central componenent of the sexual scripts of most communities and societies
- refers to the idea that heterosexuality, as a default sexual orientation, can be adopted by
people regardless of their personal sexual preferences
- Originally coined by Adrienne Rich in her groundbreaking essay ―Compulsory
Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence,‖
i. Ableism
- discrimination against the mentally and physically disabled
- Susan Wendell in ―The Social Construction of Disability‖ makes the case that ableism is
a direct result of social factors that actively create standards of normality against which
ability/disability is constructed
j. Privilege
- advantage given by institutions

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- advantages people have by virtue of their status or position in society
- this can be distinguished from earned privilege that results, for example, from earning a
degree or fulfilling responsibilities
k. Horizontal hostility
- when individuals direct the resentment and anger they have about their situation onto
those who are of equal or lesser status, this process is called horizontal hostility
- it is similar to the military tactic of ―divide and conquer‖ in which groups are
encouraged to fight with one another in order to avoid alliances that might collaboratively
overpower an enemy
- women may do this when they are in competition about looks or put other women down
l. Gender swapping
- internet and other virtual technologies have facilitated Tran gendered identities through
disruption of the expectation between self and body (feminine identity w. female body)
- these technologies remove physical, bodily cues and potentially allow gender swapping
the creation of identities that attempt to avoid the binaries of ―femininity‖ and
- supports the post-modern view of gender as per formative and identity as multiple and
- men create feminine identities for themselves and vice versa
- able to explore the ways that human interactions are structured by gender and to
experience in some ways what life is like as another gender
m. Homophobia
- the societal fear or hatred of lesbians and gay men
n. Internalized oppression ** look more into this
- incorporated into our thoughts or behaviours (prejudiced)
- we not only police ourselves, but also police one another, encouraging compliance with
institutions that may oppress
- the manner in which an oppressed group comes to use against itself the methods of the
oppressor. For example, sometimes members of marginalized groups hold an oppressive
view toward their own group, or start to believe in negative stereotypes.
o. Lifestyle feminism
- ushered in the notion that there could be as many versions of feminism as their were
- no matter what a woman‘s politics, she too could fit feminism into her existing lifestyle
p. Gender socialization
- the learning of behavior and attitudes considered appropriate for a given sex.
- we are taught and learn the appropriate thinking and behaviours associated with being a
boy or girl in any given society
q. Transgender
- claim a gender identity or expression different from the one assigned at birth by their
family and community
- gender identity doesn‘t match assigned one
r. Genderqueer
- combined alternative gender identities and sexualities, although you might see it used to
imply someone who is transgendered without concern for gender identity
- describes a person who is nonconformist in challenging existing constructions and
- might also see it used to describe a social movement resisting the traditional categories
of gender
s. Tombois ** look more into this?
- in west Sumatra, Indonesia
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