Attitude is a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, or issues
Attitude object (A ) is anything a person has an attitude towards, whether it is tangible or
Functional theory of attitudes was developed to explain how attitudes facilitate social
• Utilitarian function: related to the basic principles of reward and punishment. We
develop some of our attitudes toward products on the basis of whether these products
give pleasure or pain.
• Value-Expressive function:Attitudes that perform a value-expressive function express the
consumer’s central values or self-concept.Aperson forms a product attitude not because
of objective benefits, but what the product says about him or her as a person. These are
highly relevant to lifestyle analyses, where consumers cultivate a cluster of activities,
interests, and opinions to express a particular social identity.
• Ego-defensive function : Attitudes that form to protect the person, either from external
threats or internal feelings, perform an ego-defensive function.
• Knowledge function: Some attitudes are formed as the result of a need for order,
structure, or meaning.
THE ABC MODELOFATTITUDES
Affect refers to the way a consumer feels about an attitude object
Behaviour, or conation, involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an
Cognition refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object.
Hierarchies of effects, explains the relative impact of the three components. Each hierarchy
specifies that a fixed sequence of steps occurs en route to an attitude.
The High-involvement hierarchy – When highly involved a consumer approaches a product
decision as a problem solving process. First they form beliefs about the product by accumulating
knowledge (beliefs) regarding relevant attributes. Next the consumer evaluates beliefs and forms
a feeling about the product (affect). Finally based on evaluation the consumer engages in relevant
behaviour such as buying the product. The Low-involvement hierarchy—the consumer has minimal amount of information before
purchase, and has an emotional response only after consuming the product.
The less important the product is to consumers, the more important are many of the marketing
stimuli that must devised to market it.
Zajonc’s model of hedonic consumption—The emotional response is a significant central
aspect of attitude.According to the experiential hierarchy of effects, consumers act on the basis
of their emotional reactions. This perspective highlights the idea that attitudes can be strongly
influenced by product attributes irrelevant to actual quality, such as package design and colour,
and by consumers’reactions toward accompanying stimuli, such as advertising and brand name.
Emotional contagion—messages delivered by happy people enhance our attitude toward the
The independence of cognition and affect. On one hand cognitive-affective model argues that an
affective judgment is the last step in a series of cognitive processes. Earlier steps include sensory
registration of stimuli and the retrieval of meaningful information from memory to categorize
On the other hand, independence hypothesis takes the position that affect and cognition involve
two separate, partially independent systems; affective responses do not always require prior
This type of processing is likely to occur when the product is perceived as primarily expressive
or when it delivers sensory pleasure rather than utilitarian benefits.
PRODUCTATTITUDES DON’T TELLTHE WHOLE STORY
Additional factors to consider are attitudes towards the act of buying in general.
Attitude toward the advertisement-consumers reactions to a product, above their feelings
about the product itself are influenced by their evaluations of its advertising.
The predisposition to respond in a favourable or unfavourable manner to a particular advertising
stimulus during a particular exposure occasion. Determinants include the viewer’s attitude
toward the advertiser, evaluations of the ad execution itself, the mood evoked by the ad, and the
degree to which the ad affects viewers’arousal levels.
Ads have feelings too – these feelings can be influenced both by the way the ad is done (the
specific execution) and by the consumer’s reactions to the advertiser’s motives.
Specific types of feelings can be generated by an ad include: • Upbeat feelings – amused, delighted, playful
• Warm feelings – affectionate, contemplative, hopeful
• Negative feelings – critical, defiant, offended
Attitudes can be formed through classical conditioning or instrumental condition, or even
LEVELS OF COMMITMENT TOANATTITUDE
Compliance: the lowest level of involvement, is formed because it helps gain rewards or avoid
punishments from others. Very superficial; likely to change when the person’s behaviour is no
longer monitored by others or when another option becomes available.
Identification: Occurs when attitudes are formed so consumers will then feel similar to another
person or group.
Internalization: High level of involvement, deep-seated attitudes are internalized and become
part of the person’s value system. It is very difficult to change because they are important to the
THE CONSISTENCY PRINCIPLE
Principle of cognitive consistency, consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings,
and behaviours, and they are motivated to maintain uniformity among these elements. This desire
means that, if necessary, consumers will change thoughts, feelings or behaviours to make them
consistent with other experiences.
Theory of cognitive dissonance states that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies
among attitudes or behaviours, he or she will take some action resolve this dissonance.
Self-Perception theory provides an alternative explanation of dissonance effects, it assumes that
people use observations of their own behaviour to determine what their attitudes are, just as we
assume that we know the attitudes of others by watching what they do.
We maintain consistency by inferring that we must have a positive attitude toward an object if
we bought or consumed it. This is relevant to low-involvement hierarchy since it involves
behaviours are initially performed in the absence of strong internal attitude.After the fact, the
cognitive and affective components of attitude fall in line.
Foot-in-the-door technique is based on the observation that a consumer is more likely to
comply with a request if he or she has first agreed to comply with a smaller one. Willingness to comply is based on the customer already agreeing to listen to the sales person, and placing an
order becomes much easier. Factors that influence the effectiveness of this technique are:
• The time lag between the first and second request
• The similarity between the two requests
• Whether the same person makes both requests.
Low-ball technique, in which a person is asked for a small favour and is informed after agreeing
to it that it will be very costly
Door-in-the-face technique, in which a person is first asked to do something extreme (a request
that is usually refused) and then is asked to do something smaller. In each of these cases, people
tend to go along with the smaller request (possibly due to guilt)
Social Judgment theory assumes that people assimilate new information about attitude objects
in the light of what they already know or feel. The initial attitude acts as a frame of reference,
and new information is categorized in terms of the existing standard.
Important aspect is that people differ in terms of the information they will find acceptable and
Latitudes of acceptance and rejection are ideas that fall within a latitude will be favourably
received, while those falling outside will not.
Assimilation effect messages that fall within the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as more
consistent with our own position than they actually are.
Contrast effect messages that fall into the latitude of rejection tend to be seen as even farther
from our own position than they actually are.
Balance theory considers relations among elements a person might perceive as belonging
together. This perspective involves relations (always from the perceiver’s subjective point of
view) among three elements (called triads). Each triad contains
1. Aperson and his or her perceptions
2. An attitude object
3. Some other person or object.
These perceptions can be either positive or negative. More importantly people alter perceptions
to make relations among them consistent. The theory specifies that people desire relations among
elements in a triad to be harmonious or balance, if not a state of tension will result until
somehow perceptions are changed and balance is restored. Elements can be seen in one of two ways.
Unit relation (one element is seen as somehow belonging to or being a part of the other)
Sentiment relation (the two elements are linked because one has expressed a preference (or
dislike) for the other).
Multi-attribute attitude models is a type of model that assumes a consumer’s attitude
(evaluation) of an attitude object will depend on the beliefs he or she has about several or many
attributes of the object. This can be predicted by identifying these specific beliefs and combining
them to derive a measure of the consumers overall attitude.
Basic multi-attribute models specify three elements
1. Attributes are characteristics of theA , oost models assume that relevant characteristics
can be identified; that is, the researcher can include those attributes that consumers take
into consideration when evaluating theA o.
2. Beliefs are cognitions about the specificA (usually relative to others similar to it).A
belief measure assesses the extent to which the consumer perceives that a brand possesses
a particular attribute.
3. Importance weights reflect the relative priority of an attribute to the consumer.Although
anA con be considered on the basis of a number of attributes, some are more important
than others. And will differ across consumers.
The Fishbein model is the most influential multi-attribute model, the model measures three
components of attitude:
1. Salient beliefs people have about anA (thooe beliefs about the object that are considered
2. Object-attribute linkages, or the probability that a particular object has an important
3. Evaluation of each of the important attributes
The model assumes that we are able to specify adequately all relevant attributes, that the
consumer will go through the process of identifying relevant attributes, weighing them and
Strategic applications are
Capitalize on relative advantage; emphasize the importance of an advantage to consumers Strengthen perceived product-attribute links; address the issue of consumers not equating a
brand with certain attributes by running an ad campaign that stresses the product’s qualities to
Add a new attribute; to create a position distinct from competitors.
Influence competitor’s ratings; try to decrease positivity of competitors through comparative
Theory of reasoned action a model that contains important additions to the fishbein model, and
it is still not perfect, but its ability to predict relevant behaviour is improved.
Intentions versus behaviour
It is important to distinguish between firmly held attitudes and those that are more superficial,
especially since an attitude held with greater conviction makes it more likely that it will be acted
on. The theory of reasoned action aims to measure behavioural intentions, recognizing that
certain uncontrollable factors inhibit prediction of actual behaviour.
The theory acknowledges the power of other people in influencing behaviour. What we think
others would like us to do may be more crucial than our own individual preferences.
Subjective Norm (SN) was added to include the effects of what we believe other people think
we should do. The value of SN is arrived at by two other factors:
1. The intensity of normative belief (NB) that others think an action should be taken or not
2. The motivation to comply (MC) with that belief (the degree to which the consumer takes
others’anticipated response into account when evaluating a course of action or a
Attitude toward buying
Attitude toward the act of buying (A ) tactmodel measures the perceived consequences of a
purchase. Knowing how someone feels about buying or using an object is more valid than
knowing the consumer’s evaluation of the object itself.
Obstacles to predicting behaviour in the theory of reasoned action
Obstacles to predicting behaviour are as follows
• The model was developed to deal with actual behaviour not the outcome of behaviour
that are assessed in some studies • Some outcomes are beyond the consumer’s control, such as when the purchase requires
the cooperation of others.
• Basic assumption that behaviour is intentional may be invalid in a variety of cases
• Measures of attitude often do not correspond to behaviour they are supposed to predict,
either in terms of the object or when the act will occur. It is very important to match the
level of specificity between the attitude and the behavioural intention.
• Time frame of the attitude measure is a similar problem, the longer the time between
attitude measurement and the behaviour it is supposed to asses, the weaker the
relationship will be.
• Attitudes formed by direct, personal experience with object are stronger and more
predictive of behaviour than those formed indirectly (advertising).
• The model was developed to predict the performance of any voluntary act.
• The relative impact of subjective norms varies across cultures.
• The model measures behavioural intentions and thus presupposes that consumers are
actively thinking ahead and planning future behaviours. The perspective of time is not
held by all cultures
• Aconsumer who forms an intention is (implicitly) claiming that he or she is in control of
his or her actions.
Trying to consume
The theory of trying states that the criterion of behaviour in the reasoned action model should be
replaced with trying to reach a goal. This recognizes that additional factors might intervene
between intent and performance—both personal and environmental behaviours might prevent the
individual from attaining the goal. Factors that either help or hurt our attempts to reach a goal
• The amount of control a person has over the situation
• His or her expectations of success or failure in achieving the goal
• social norms related to attaining the goal
• his or her attitude toward the process of trying (i.e. how the action required to attain the
goal makes him or her feel Other variables are the frequency and recency of past trying of the behaviour
TrackingAttitudes over Time
An attitude survey is like a snapshot in time, it may tell us about a brands position but it does not
tell us about the progress the brand has made over time or any predictions about possible future
changes in consumer attitudes. To do this we must develop an attitude tracking program, this
helps us increase the predictability of behaviour by allowing researchers to analyze attitude
trends over an extended period of time.
Ongoing tracking studies
Attitude tracking involves attitude surveys administered at regular intervals, with identical
methodology to get reliable comparable results.
Changes to look for over time
Some dimensions include
• Changes in different age groups:Attitudes change as people age (life-cycle effect), in
addition cohort effects occur, where members of a particular generation tend to share
certain outlooks.Also historical effects can be observed as large groups of people are
affected by profound cultural changes.
• Scenarios about the future: Consumers are tracked in terms of future plans, confidence in
the economy, and so on. These measures can provide valuable data about future
behaviour and yield insights for public policy.
• Identification of change agents: Social phenomena can change attitudes toward basic
consumption activities over time.
Chapter 8Attitude Change and Interactive Communications
Changing attitudes through communication
Attitude change: Alteration of one or more of the cognitive, affective, and behavioural
components of an attitude to facilitate a shift in actual behaviour
Interactive communication: Atwo-way effect among consumers and media
Persuasion – the active attempt to change attitudes (central goal to many marketing
Some basic psychological principles that influence people to change their minds or comply with
a request are as follows. Reciprocity: People are more likely to give if they receive
Scarcity: Items are more attractive when they are less available.
Authority: We tend to believe an authoritative source much more readily.
Consistency: People try not to contradict themselves in terms of what they say and do about an
Consensus: We take into account what others are doing before we decide what to do.
Decisions, Decisions: Tactical Communications Options
To craft persuasive messages a number of questions must be answered:
Who will be depicted as using the product? Should it be linked to a celebrity? a career person? a
rock star? The source of a message helps to determine consumers’acceptance of it, as well as
desire to try the product.
How should the message be constructed? Should it emphasize on the negative consequences of
not using the product? Should it directly compare the product with competitors? Product benefits
can be expressed in many ways.
What media should be used to transmit the message? Should it be in print ad? on TV? Should it
be sold door-to-door? If in print which magazine should it be run in? sometimes where
something is said can be as important as what is said.Attributes of the product should be
matched with those of the medium.
What characteristics of the target market might influence the ad’s acceptance? If targeted
users are frustrated in their daily lives, they may be more receptive to a fantasy appeal.
THE ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
Communications model specifies that a number of elements are necessary for communication
to be achieved.
Asource must choose and encode a message (initiate the transfer of meaning by choosing
appropriate symbolic images that represent this meaning). There are many ways to say
something, and the structure of the message has a big effect on how it is perceived. Messages
must be transferred via a medium (TV, radio, magazines, billboards, or even t-shirts). The
message is then decoded by one or more receivers, who interpret the symbols in light of their
own experiences. Finally feedback must be received by the source, which uses the reactions of
receivers to modify aspects of the message.
INTERACTIVE COMMUNIUCATIONS Permission marketing is based on the idea that a marketer will be much more successful at
trying to persuade consumers who have opted into the messages; consumers who opt out were
probably not very good prospects.
Uses and gratifications theory argues that consumers are an active, goal-directed audience that
draws on mass media as a resource to satisfy needs. Instead of asking what media does for or to
people, they ask what people do with their media.
This approach emphasizes that media competes with other sources to satisfy needs and that these
needs include diversion and entertainment as well as information.
Who’s in charge of the remote?
Technological and social developments are changing the picture of the passive consumer, as
people play an increasingly proactive role in communications. From potatoes to the active
partner in communication.
M-Commerce (mobile commerce), where marketers promote their goods and services via
wireless devices including cell phones, PDAs, and iPods, is red-hot.
Blogging where people post messages to the web in diary form.
Forms of blogging
Moblogging: Posting to a blog on the go from a camera phone or handheld device
Video blogging (vlogging): posting video diaries
Podcasting: Creating your own radio show that people can listen to on either their computers or
RSS: people sign up to get updates sent automatically
Flogs (fake blogs): Blogs created by companies to generate buzz
Virtual Worlds: Immersive 3D digital environments (e.g. Second Life).
Twitter: Postings limited to 140 characters. The site continues to grow exponentially
Widgets: Small programs that users can download onto desktops, or embed in blogs or profile
pages, that import some form of live content
LEVELS OF INTERACTIVE RESPONSE
Feedback in terms of behaviour can be did the recipient buy the product? Other forms include, building awareness of the brand, informing us about product features,
reminding us to buy a new package when we’ve run out, and building a long-term relationship.
Atransaction is one type of response, but forward thinking marketers realize that customers can
interact with them in other valuable ways as well. There are 2 types of feedback.
1. First-order response:Aproduct offer that directly yields a transaction is a first-order
response. In addition to revenue, sales data are a valuable source of feedback that allows
marketers to gauge effectiveness of communication efforts.
2. Second-Order response: Customer feedback in response to a marketing message that is
not in the form of a transaction.
The source can be chosen because he or she is an expert, attractive, famous, or even a “typical”
consumer who is both likeable and trustworthy. Two important source characteristics are
credibility and attractiveness.
Those that are sensitive about social acceptance and the opinion of others are more persuaded by
an attractive source, while those who are more internally oriented are swayed by a credible,
The choice also depends on the type of product, Experts are effective for utilitarian products that
have high performance risk. Celebrities are effective when they focus on hedonistic products that
have a high social risk. “Typical” consumers are effective when providing real-life endorsements
for everyday products that are low risk.
Source Credibility refers to the source’s perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness.
This characteristic relates to consumer’s beliefs that a communicator is competent and willing to
provide the necessary information adequately to evaluate competing products.Acredible source
is persuasive when the consumer has yet to form an opinion or learned much about the product.
The sleeper effect when people forget the negative source and wind up changing their attitudes
Some explanation for the sleeper effect:
• the dissociative cue hypothesis proposed that over time the message and the source
become disassociated in the consumer’s mind. The message remains on its own in
memory, causing a delayed attitude change
• Availability-valence hypothesis, emphasizes the selectivity of memory owing to limited
capacity. If the associations linked to the negative source is less available than those
linked to the message information, the residual impact of the message enhances
persuasion. BUILDING CREDIBILITY
Credibility can be enhanced if the source’s qualifications are perceived as relevant to the product
being endorsed. This link can overcome other objections people may have to the endorser or the
Aconsumer’s beliefs about a product’s attributes can be weakened if the source is perceived to
be the victim of bias in presenting information.
Knowledge bias implies a source’s knowledge about a topic is not accurate
Reporting bias occurs when a source has the required knowledge but his or her willingness to
convey it accurately is compromised.
The fact that the source is a “hired gun” compromises believability.
Corporate Paradox – the more involved a company appears to be in the dissemination of news
about its products, the less credible it becomes.
Buzz is word of mouth that is viewed as authentic and generated by customers
Hype is dismissed as inauthentic—corporate propaganda planted by a company with an axe to
Source attractiveness refers to the source’s perceived social value. This quality can emanate
from the person’s physical appearance, personality or social status, or similarity to the receiver.
Halo effect occurs when individuals who are rated highly on one dimension are assumed to
excel in others as well. Explained through the consistency principle (what is beautiful is good)
Beauty can also function as a source of information. The effectiveness of attractive spokespeople
in ads appears to be largely limited to those situations where the product is overtly related to
attractiveness or sexuality.
The social adaptation perspective assumes that information seen to be instrumental in forming
an attitude will be more heavily weighted by the perceiver; we filter out irrelevant information to
minimize cognitive effort.
Star Power – celebrities increase awareness of a firm’s advertising and enhance both company
image and brand attitudes. Acelebrity endorsement can be effective in differentiating among
similar products. This is especially important when consumers do not perceive many actual
differences among competitors. For celebrity campaigns to be effective, the endorser must have a clear and popular image. In
addition to the celebrity’s image and that of the product he or she endorses should be similar; this
effect is known as the match-up hypothesis
Q-rating (quality rating) considers two factors in surveys:
1. Consumers’level of familiarity with a name
2. The number of respondents who indicate that a person, program, or character is a
Non-human endorsers there are drawbacks to using celebrities, such as their motives may be
suspect if plug products don’t fit their images, or if they come to be seen as never having met a
product they didn’t like (for a fee). Or be involved in scandals or upset customers. For these
reason marketers seek alternatives, including cartoon characters and mascots.
Advantages of virtual avatars compared to flesh and blood models is that it’s possible to change
the avatar in real time to suit the needs of the target audience or individual consumer. It is likely
to be more cost effective than hiring a real person.
The most important feature was whether the communication contained a brand-differentiating
message. The characteristics of the ad itself help to determine the impact of that message on
attitudes. These include how the message is said as well as what is actually said. Some issues
include the following:
• Should the message be conveyed in words or pictures?
• How concrete or vivid should the arguments and imagery be?
• How often should the message be repeated?
• Should both sides of an argument be presented?
• Should a conclusion be drawn, or should this be left up to the viewer/listener
• Should a blatant sexual appeal be used?
• Should the ad be funny?
• Should negative emotions, such as fear, even be aroused?
SENDING THE MESSAGE Verbal forms affect ratings on the utilitarian aspects of a product, while visual version affects
aesthetic evaluations. Verbal elements are more effective when reinforced by an accompanying
picture, especially if the illustration is framed.
Verbal messages are more appropriate in high-involvement situations such as in print contexts.
Verbal material decays more rapidly in memory, more frequent exposures are needed to obtain
the desired effect.
Visual images allow the receiver to chunk information at the time of encoding. Chunking results
in a stronger memory trace, which aids retrieval over time.
Visual elements affect brand attitudes in one of two ways.
1. The consumer may form inferences about the brand and change his or her beliefs because
of an image.
2. Brand attitudes may be affected more directly. Astrong positive or negative reaction
elicited by the visual elements will influence the consumer’s attitude toward the ad,
which will affect brand attitudes.
Vividness – powerful descriptions or graphics command attention and are more strongly
embedded in memory because they tend to activate mental imagery, while abstract stimuli inhibit
this process. This can cut both ways. Negative information presented in a vivid manner may
result in more negative evaluations at a later time. REPETITION
Mere exposure effect – people tend to like things that are more familiar to them, even if they
were not that keen on them initially
On the other hand repetition creates habituation, wherein the consumer no longer pays attention
to stimulus due to fatigue or boredom. Excessive exposure can cause advertising wear out, which
can result in negative reactions to an ad after seeing it too much.
Two-factor theory – proposes that two separate psychological processes are operating when a
person is repeatedly exposed to an ad. The positive side of repetition is that it increases
familiarity and thus reduces uncertainty about the product. The negative side is that, over time,
boredom increases with each exposure.
Advertisers can overcome the problem by limiting the amount of exposure per repetition. They
also maintain familiarity but alleviate boredom by slightly varying the content of ads over time
through campaigns that revolve around a common theme.
Supportive arguments – the advertisement presents one or more positive attributes about the
product or reasons to buy it
Two-sided message – both positive and negative information is presented. This can be quite
effective, yet they are not widely used.
Under the right circumstances the use of refutational arguments, where a negative issue is raised
and then dismissed, can be quite effective. This can increase source credibility by reducing
Two-sided strategy appears to be most effective to a well-educated audience or when receivers
are not loyal to the product.
Consumers who make their own inferences instead of being spoon-fed will form stronger, more
accessible attitudes. But leaving the conclusion ambiguous increases the chance the desired
attitude will not be formed. If the ad is personally relevant, people will pay attention to it and
spontaneously form inferences. But arguments that are hard to follow or consumers’motivation
to follow them is lacking, it is safer for the ad to draw conclusions.
Comparative advertising refers to a strategy where a message identifies two or more
specifically named or recognizably presented brands and compares them in terms of one or more
specific attributes. EMOTIONALVERSUS RATIONALAPPEALS
Depends on the nature of the product and the type of relationship consumers have with it. The
precise effects of rational versus emotional appeals are hard to gauge. Though recall of ad
contents tend to be better for “thinking” ads than for “feeling” ads, conventional measures of
advertising effectiveness may not be adequate to assess cumulative effects of emotional ads.
These measures are for thinking ads, and feeling ads are harder to articulate.
Female nudity in print ads generates negative feelings and tension among female consumers,
while men’s reactions are positive. Males disliked nude males in ads, whereas females responded
well to undressed males—but not totally nude ones. Men tend to ignore the text in sexual ads and
focus on the women in it, while women explore the text first.
The use of humour is tricky, since what is funny to one is offensive or incomprehensible to
another. Specific cultures may have different senses of humour and also use funny material in
Humour can be effective when it provides a source of distraction.Afunny ad inhibits the
consumer from counterarguing. This increases the likelihood of message acceptance. Humour is
likely to be effective when the brand is clearly identified and the funny material does not swamp
Fear appeals highlight the negative consequences that can occur if the consumer fails to change a
behaviour or attitude. The arousal of fear is a common tactic for public-policy issues, such as
convincing consumers to stop smoking or drive safely.
Fear appeals are most effective when only a moderate amount of fear is induced. The
relationship between fear and attitude change is non-monotonic. If the threat is too great, the
audience tends to deny that it exists as a way of rationalizing the danger.
Fear appeals work when the consumer is already afraid fo the problem discussed in the ad. The
threats should not be too excessive, and a solution to the problem should be presented.Also
source credibility must be high.
Resonance is another type of literary device that is frequently used in advertising. It is a form of
presentation that combines a play on words with a relevant picture. FORMS OF STORY PRESENTATION
Alecture is like a speech where the source speaks directly to the audience members in an
attempt to inform them about a product or persuade them to buy it.Alecture clearly implies an
attempt to persuasion the audience will regard it as such.Assuming listeners are motivated to do
so, they will weigh the merits of the message along with the credibility of the source.
Adrama is similar to a play or a movie. While an argument holds the viewer at arm’s length, a
drama draws the viewer into the action. The characters address the audience only indirectly; they
interact with each other about a product or service in an imaginary setting. Dramas attempt to be
experiential—to involve the audience emotionally. In transformational advertising, the consumer
associates the experience of product usage with some subjective sensation.
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) assumes that once a consumer receives a message, he or
she begins to process it. Depending on the personal relevance of the information, one of two
routes to persuasion will be followed
The Central Route to persuasion – this is the route taken under conditions of high
involvement, when the consumer finds the information in a persuasive message to be relevant or
somehow interesting, he or she will carefully attend to the message content. The person is likely
to think actively about the arguments and generate cognitive responses to these arguments. If a
person generates counterarguments in response to a message, it is less likely that he or she will
yield to the message
The Peripheral Route to Persuasion – is the route taken under conditions of low involvement,
when the person is not motivated to think about the arguments presented. Instead use other cues
in deciding the suitability of the message. The cues include the products package, the
attractiveness of the source, or the context in which the message is presented. Sources of
information extraneous to the actual message content are called peripheral cues because they
surround the actual message.
Products package, attractiveness of the source or creating a pleasant shopping environment will
cause consumers to purchase the product.
SUPPORT FOR THE ELM MODEL
Three independent variables crucial to the ELM were manipulated
1. Message-processing involvement: Subjects were motivated to be highly involved with the
ads by being promised a gift of low-alcohol beer for participating in the study and by
being told the brand would soon be available in their area. Subjects not promised a gift
and were told that the brand would be introduced in a distant area had low involvement. 2. Argument strength: One version of the ad used strong, compelling arguments to drink
Break while the other listed only weak arguments.
3. Source characteristics: Both ads contained a photo of a couple drinking beer, their
relative social attractiveness was varied by their dress, posture, and non-verbal
expressions, and by the background information given about their educational
achievements and occupations
High involvement consumers look for the “steak” (strong, rational arguments), while those who
are less involved are more affected by the “sizzle” (the colours and images used in packaging or
endorsements by famous people).
Important to note that the same communication variables can be both a central and a peripheral
cue, depending on its relation to the attitude object. The physical attractiveness of a model might
serve as a peripheral cue in a car commercial, but her beauty might be a central cue for a product
such as shampoo, where products benefits are directly tied to enhancing attractiveness.
Steps to individual decision making
1. Problem recognition
2. Information search
3. Evaluation of alternatives
4. Product choice
Step 5 will affect whether or not the same purchase will be made again.
(1) How consumers recognize the problem or need for a product
(2) Their search for information about product choices
(3) The ways in which they evaluate alternatives to arrive at a decision
Consumer Hyperchoice—large number of available options forces us to make repeated choices
that drain psychological energy while decreasing our abilities to make smart decisions
Rational perspective—people calmly and carefully integrate as much information as possible
with what they already know about a product, painstakingly weigh the pluses and minuses of
each alternative, and arrive at a satisfactory decision. Purchase momentum—initial impulses increase the likelihood that we buy even more and
plunge into a spending spree
Different people have different cognitive processing styles. Some have a rational system of
cognition where they process information analytically and sequentially using rules of logic,
while others rely on an experiential system of cognition that process information more
holistically and in parallel.
Behavioural influence perspective—concentrating on low involvement purchase decisions that
are impulse, managers must concentrate on assessing the environment like physical surroundings
and product placement, which influence members of a target market.
Experiential perspective stresses the gestalt, or totality of the product or service. Marketers
focus on measuring consumers’affective responses to products or services and develop offerings
that elicit appropriate subjective reactions.
Continuum of buying decision behaviour—the amount of effort that goes into the decision
each time anchored from one end by habitual decision making and the other by extended
problem solving. Many decisions fall somewhere in the middle and are characterized by limited
Extended problem solving—correspond with traditional decision-making perspective. Usually
initiated by a motive fairly central to self-concept and eventual decision is perceived to carry a
fair degree of risk. Consumer will collect information internally and externally. The evaluation is
done by considering attributes of one brand at a time and seeing how each brand’s attributes
shape up to some set of desired characteristics.
Limited Problem solving—this is more straightforward and simple. Buyers are not motivated to
search for information or evaluate alternatives rigorously. Instead use simple decision rules to
choose among alternatives.
Habitual Decision making—decisions that are made with little or no conscious effort. These
purchase decisions are so routine that we may not realize we’ve made them until we look in our
shopping carts. These are choices characterized by automaticity (performed with minimal effort
and without conscious control)
Problem recognition—occurs whenever the consumer sees a significant difference between his
or her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state. Consumer perceives there is a
problem to be solved, which may be small or large, simple or complex.
Two ways to recognize a problem, 1. Need recognition -consumers actual state can move downward, this can occur in several
ways, the quality of the persons actual state can be diminished by running out of a
product, buying a product that does not satisfy adequately, or create new needs
a. e.g. gas for a car
2. Opportunity recognition—consumer’s ideal state can move upward, this often occurs
when a consumer is exposed to different or better-quality products, which in turn can
occur because the persons circumstances have somehow changed, as when an individual
goes to college or university or gets a new job.
a. Newer flashier car
Information search—the process which the consumer surveys his or her environment for data
to make a reasonable decision.
TYPES OF INFORMATION SEARCH
Prepurchase search – search for specific information after need is recognized
Ongoing search – search for information, and keep track of developments to maintain current
information for future use.
Internal search vs. external search
When faced with purchase decision, we will engage in internal search by scanning memory to
assemble information about different product alternatives. Then we will supplement this
knowledge with external search (ads, friends, or observation)
Deliberate vs.Accidental search
Existing knowledge of a product may be due to directed learning (previous occasion we already
searched for relevant information or experienced alternatives). Exposure to ad’s packaging, and
sales promos can result in incidental learning.
New info shopper-automatically search for information online before they buy
Search engine optimization (SEO)—so companies can be first to pop up on quick searches.
Brand switching- switching to a new brand even if current brand satisfy needs. Variety seeking- priority is to vary one’s product experiences, perhaps as a form of stimulation
to reduce boredom.
• Likely to happen when people are in a good mood or when there is relatively little
stimulation elsewhere in their environment.
Sensory-specific satiety – pleasantness of food just eaten drops while the pleasantness of uneaten
foods remains unchanged.
Mental accounting- decisions are influenced by the way a problem is posed (framing) and by
whether it is put in terms of gains or losses.
Sunk-cost fallacy—paid for something makes us reluctant to waste it.
Hyperopia—medical term for far-sighted vision, describes people who are obsessed with
preparing for the future that they can’t enjoy the present
Loss aversion—people place much more emphasis on loss than they do on gain.
Prospect theory- descriptive model of choice, finds that utility is a function of gains and losses,
and risk differs when consumer faces options involving gains versus losses.
HOW MUCH SEARCH OCCURS
Ceratus parabas younger, better-educated people who enjoy shopping/ fact-finding tend to
conduct more information search. Women are more inclined to search than men, and those who
place greater value on style and image they present.
Shoppers only consider partial information because there are too many combinations of all
attributes to take into short-term memory and process efficiently.
Consumer’s prior expertise
Novices- should be most motivated to search for information; however, experts who are more
familiar with the product, should be able to better understand the meaning of any new product
information they might acquire, but neither search more.
Search tends to be greatest among consumers who are moderately knowledgeable about the
product (Inverted U shape relationship between knowledge and external search effort.)
Experts tend to engage in selective search, focused and efficient searches.
Novices rely on opinions of others and non-functional attributes, such as brand name and price.
May also process information top-down rather than bottom-up, focusing less on details than on
big picture. The less we like something, the easier it is to persuade ourselves we like it.
Perceived Risk-the belief that the product has some potentially negative consequences, this may
be present if the product is expensive or is complex and hard to understand.
Extended processing occurs in situations where negative emotions are aroused by conflicts
among the choices available
Evoked set – the alternatives actively considered during a consumer’s choice process. This
entails products already in memory (retrieval set) plus those prominent in the retail environment.
Intert set – the alternatives you are aware of but would not consider to buy
Inept set – the alternatives not entering your mind at all.
Anew brand is more likely to be added to the evoked set than is an existing brand that was
previously considered but passed over, even after additional positive information was provided.
Catergorizing products can either help or hurt a product, depending on what people compare it
Superordinate level – abstract idea
Basic level – items grouped together at this level have a lot in common but still permit a range of
Subordinate level – includes individual brands and is much more specific.
Brands that are strongly associated with a category get to call the shots by defining the criteria
that should be used to evaluate all category members. (Apple pie Vs Rhubarb pie)
Feature creep – proliferation of increasingly complicated products and gizmos.
Evaluative Criteria – the dimensions used to judge the merits of competing options.
Determinant attributes—attributes that are actually used to differentiate among choices.
To recommend a new decision criterion effectively, his or her communication should convey
three pieces of information
1. Point out there are significant differences among brands on the attribute.
2. Supply the consumer with a decision-making rule, such as “If [deciding among
competing brands], then [use the attribute as a criterion] 3. Convey a rule that can be easily integrated with the way the person has made this
decision in the past. Otherwise the recommendation is likely to be ignored because it
requires too much mental work.
Neuromarketing uses functional magenetic resonance imaging (fMRI) a brain-scanning device
that tracks blood flow as we perform mental tasks. Interconnected neurons shape the ways that
fear, panic, exhilaration, and social pressure influences our choices.
Cybermediaries—an intermediary that helps to filter and organize online market information so
that customers can identify and evaluate alternatives more efficiently
Customer product reviews are a key driver of satisfaction and loyalty.
The long tail – companies no longer need to rely solely on big hits to find profits. Companies
make money if they sell small amounts of items that only a few people want—if they sell enough
Electronic recommendation agent—software tool that tries to understand human decision
maker’s multi-attribute preference for a product by asking the user to communicate his or her
preferences. Based on the data, the software recommends a list of alternatives. More effective for
utilitarian products than hedonistic.
Brand advocates—people who supply reviews of products
Heuristics—mental rules of thumb that lead to a speedy decision.
Product signal - aspects of the product that is visible
When information is incomplete, judgements are derived from beliefs about covariation, or
association among events.
Market beliefs –consumers beliefs of relationships in the marketplace, which become shortcuts
that guide decisions.
Ethnocentrism – the tendency to prefer products or people of one’s own culture over those from
Zipf’s law – the pattern that the first has twice as much frequency as the 2 and three times as
much as the 3 and so on; meaning brands that dominate their markets are as much as 50% more
profitable than nearest competitor.
Inertia-people tend to buy the same brand just about every time they go to the store.Abrand is
bought out of habit merely because less effort is required. Little resistance to brand switching
will be encountered if some reason to switch is apparent. Brand loyalty—form of repeat-purchasing behaviour reflecting a conscious decision to continue
buying the same brand.Apattern of repeat purchasing must be accompanied by an underlying
positive attitude toward the brand.
Brand parity—which refers to consumers’beliefs that there are no significant differences
Non-compensatory—simple decision rules, and a product with a low standing on one attribute
cannot make up for this position by being better on another attribute.
Lexicographic rule-brand that is the best on the most important attribute is selected. If 2 or
more are seen as equal in one attribute, then the consumer compares them using a 2 attribute.
This goes on until the tie is broken.
The Elimination-by-aspects rule—evaluated on the most important attribute, specific cut-offs
The Conjunctive rule-processing by brand, brand is chosen if it meets all cut-offs, while failure
to meet any one cut-off means rejection. If none meet cut-offs decision is delayed, rules may be
changed, or cut-offs modified. This rule rates negative data heavily.
The disjunctive rule—consumer develops acceptable standards for each attribute. Standards are
higher than the shoppers minimum cut-offs for attributes. If an alternative exceeds the standard
for any attribute, it is accepted.
Compensatory rules-give a product a chance to make up for shortcomings.
Simple additive rule- consumer merely chooses the alternative with the largest number of
positive attributes. This is likely to occur when his or her ability or motivation to process
information is limited.
Weighted additive rule—consumer takes into account the relative importance of positively rated
attributes, essentially multiplying brand ratings by importance weights
SITUATIONAL EFFECTS ON CUNSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Consumption situation- factors over and above characteristics of the person and the product.
Situational effects can be behavioural or perceptual
Day reconstruction method – tracks mood changes during the day.
Situational self-image where the consumer asks “who am I right now?” this will affect what the
consumer will consume during the process. By identifying important usage situations, marketers can develop market segmentation strategies
to position products that will meet specific needs arising from these situations.
PHYSICALAND SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS
Aconsumer’s physical and social environment can make a big difference in motives for product
usage and also affect how the product is evaluated. Important cues include physical
surroundings, as well as the number and types of other consumers. Dimensions of the
environment such as décor, smells, and temperature, significantly influence consumption.
Consumer’s purchase decisions are affected by current groups or social settings. In some cases
the sheer presence (ball game, concert, and an empty bar) or absence (privileged customers at
private sale) of other patrons (co-consumers) in a setting can function as a product attribute.
Large numbers of people in a consumer environment increases arousal levels so that a
consumer’s subjective experience of a setting tends to be more intense.
Actual experience depends on the interpretation of the arousal. Therefore it is important to
distinguish between density and crowding. The former term refers to the actual number of people
in a space while the psychological state of crowding occurs only if a negative affective state is
the result of the density.
In addition the type of consumers who patronize a store or service can serve as an attribute.
Perspectives on time can affect stages of decision making and consumption such as when needs
are stimulated, the amount of information search we undertake and so on. When we have the
luxury of taking our time, we can do a careful information search and deliberation. But when we
do not anything left will do.
Timestyle - an individual’s priorities that determine their allocation of time.
Time poverty – consumers believe they are more pressed for time than ever before due to the
perception that people have much more options for spending their time and feel pressured by the
weight of all choices.
Polychronic activity – consumers do more than one thing at a time.
Psychological time – Time flies when you’re having fun, but other situations seem to last
Experience of time is subjective and is influenced by immediate priorities and needs. The fluidity
of time is important to understand because we are more likely to consume something at certain
times than others. Flow time: we become so absorbed in an activity we notice nothing else.
Occasion time: Special moments when something monumental occurs, such as a birth or
important job interview.Ads clearly relevant to the situation will be given undivided attention.
Deadline time:Any time when we’re working against the clock is the worst time to catch
Leisure time: Downtime, more likely to notice ads and try new things
Time to kill: When we are waiting for something to happen, such as catching a flight or sitting in
a waiting room. Bonus time, we feel we have the luxury to focus on extraneous things. We are
more receptive to commercial messages, even for products we don’t normally use.
Four dimensions of time:
1. Social dimension, refers to individuals categorization of time as either “time for me” or
“time with/for others”
2. Temporal orientation dimension, relative significance individuals attach to past, present,
3. Planning orientation dimension, different time-management styles varying on a
continuum from analytic to spontaneous
4. Polychromic orientation dimension, distinguishes people who prefer to do one thing at a
time from those who have multitasking timestyles.
There are 5 metaphors that capture perspectives on time.
• Time is a pressure cooker: Women who personify this metaphor are usually analytic in
planning, other-oriented, and monochromic in timestyles. Treat shopping in a methodical
manner and often feel under pressure and in conflict
• Time is a map: Women in this group are usually analytic planners and have a future
temporal orientation and polychromic timestyle. Engages in extensive information search
and comparison shopping.
• Time is a mirror: Women in this group are analytic planners and have polychromic
orientation. Has past temporal orientation. Due to risk averseness in time use, are usually
loyal to products and services they know and trust. Prefer convenience-oriented products.
• Time is a river: Women in this group are usually spontaneous in planning orientation and
have a present focus. They go on unplanned, short, and frequent shopping trips on
impulse. • Time is a feast: Women in this group are analytic planners that have a present temporal
orientation. Time is something to be consumed in the pursuit of hedonic needs and
desires in consumption behaviour.
Linear separable time; events proceed in an orderly sequence and different times are well
Queuing theory- mathematical study of waiting lines.Aconsumer’s experience of waiting can
radically influence his or her perceptions of service quality
Reasons for shopping
Social experiences – Shopping centre or department stores have replaced the town square or
country fair as a community gathering place.
Sharing of common interests: Stores offer specialized goods that allow people with shared
interests to communicate
Interpersonal attraction: Shopping centres are natural places to congregate. Malls have become
a central hangout for teenagers.Also represents a controlled, secure environment for other
Instant status: Some people savour the experience of being waited on, even though they may
not buy anything.
Thrill of the chase: Some people pride themselves on knowledge of the marketplace. May relish
haggling and bargaining, viewing it almost as a sport.
Consumers can be segmented in terms of their shopping orientation or general attitudes about
shopping. Orientations may vary depending on particular product categories and store types
Several shopping types:
• Economic consumer—a rational, goal-oriented shopper who is primarily interested in
maximising value of his or her money
• Personalized consumer—a shopper who tends to form strong attachments to store
• Ethical consumer—a shopper who likes to help out the underdog and will support locally
owned stores against big chains
• Apathetic consumer—one who does not like to shop and sees it as a necessary but
unpleasant chore • Recreational shopper—a person who views shopping as a fun social activity (preferred
way to spend leisure time)
Retail theming – retailers are going all out to create imaginative environments that transport
shoppers to fantasy worlds or provide other kinds of stimulation. There are four basic kinds of
• Landscape themes, rely on associations with images of nature, the earth, animals, and the
• Marketscape themes, build on associations with human-made places
• Cyberspace themes, built around images of information and communications technology.
One popular theming strategy is to convert a store into a being space (resembles a commercial
living room where consumers can go to relax, be entertained, hang out with friends, escape the
everyday, or even learn.
Minipreneurs – one-person businesses
Pop-up stores – appear in many forms, typically are temporary installations that do business
only for a few days or weeks and then disappear before they get old.
Store image, comprises many different factors, store features, coupled with consumer
characteristics as shopping orientation, help predict which shopping outlets people will prefer.
Some important dimensions of a store`s profile are location, merchandise suitability, and
knowledge and congeniality of the sales staff.
Atmospherics – retailers want you to come in and stay. Careful store design increases the
amount of space the shopper covers and stimulating displays keep them in the aisles longer. Or
the conscious designing of space (and its various dimensions) to evoke certain effects in buying
In-store decision making – despite all efforts to pre-sell consumers through advertising,
marketers are increasingly recognizing the significant degree to which many purchases are
influenced by the environment 2 of every 3 purchases are decided in the aisles. People with lists
are just as likely to make spontaneous purchase as those without them.
Unplanned buying may occur when a person unfamiliar with a store`s layout is under some
time pressure. Or a person may be reminded to buy something by seeing it on a store shelf.
Impulse buying occurs when the person experiences a sudden urge that he or she cannot resist.
The tendency to buy spontaneously is most likely to result in a purchase when the consumer believes that acting on impulse is appropriate, such as when purchasing a gift for a sick friend or
picking up the tab for a meal
Planners tend to know what products and specific brands they will buy beforehand
Partial planners know they need certain products but do not decide on specific brands until they
are in the store
Impulse purchasers do no advanced planning whatsoever
Point-of-Purchase Stimuli (POP) – is an elaborate product display or demonstration, a coupon-
dispensing machine, or someone giving out free samples of a new cookie in the grocery aisle.
The Salesperson- most important in-store factor is the salesperson, who attempts to influence
buying behaviour of the customers.
Exchange theory – stresses every interaction involves an exchange of value; each participant
gives something to the other and hopes to receive something in return.
Identity negotiation – some factors that help to determine a sales persons role and effectiveness
are age, appearance, educational level and motivation to sell. The ability to be adaptable is vital
when customers and salespeople differ in terms of interaction styles.
Consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction (CS/D) is determined by the overall feelings, or attitude,
a person has about a product after it has been purchased.
They become engaged in a constant process of evaluating the things they buy as these products
are integrated into their daily consumption activities
Expectancy disconfirmation model, consumers form beliefs about product performance based
on prior experience with the product and/or on communications about the product that imply a
certain level of quality.
When something performs to expectations, we don’t think much of it. If on the other hand
something fails to live up to expectations, a negative affect may result.And if performance
exceeds expectations we are satisfied and pleased
When consumers are not pleased with a product they can do one of 3 following things:
1. Voice response: The consumer can appeal directly to the retailer for redress (refund) 2. Private response: The consumer can express dissatisfaction about the store or product to
friends and/or can boycott the store. Negative WOM is very damaging
3. Third-party response: The consumer can take legal action against the merchant, register a
complaint with the Better Business Bureau, or write a letter to a newspaper.
THE REALVALUE OF HAPPY CUSTOMERS
Loyal buyers with low referral rates averaged $49 whereas the buyer with a high referral rate
brought in $670, the low-level purchasers were almost as valuable as high-level purchasers.
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Total Quality management, is a complex set of management and engineering procedures aimed
at reducing errors and increasing quality, has influenced this perspective.
Gemba means the one true source of information.
When a consumer decides a product is no longer of use, a person can
1. Keep the item
2. Temporarily dispose of it
3. Permanently dispose of it.
In many cases a new item is acquired even though the old one still functions. Some reason
include a desire for new features, a change in the persons environment, or a change in the
person’s role or self image.
Lateral cycling, where already purchased objects are sold to others or exchanged.
Divestment rituals where they take steps to gradually distance themselves from things they
treasure so that they can sell them or give them away
Iconic transfer ritual—taking pictures and videos of objects before selling htem
Transition-place ritual—putting items in an out of the way location, such as a garage or an attic,
before disposing of them
Ritual cleansing—washing, ironing, and/or meticulously wrapping the item.
Reference group – an actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of as having significant
relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behaviour. Reference groups can be described as any external influence that provides social cues. The
referent may be a cultural figure and have an impact on many people, or it may be a group whose
influence is confined to the consumer’s immediate environment. Reference groups that affect
consumption can include parents, enthusiasts, the liberal party, the Toronto raptors, or bands such
1. Informational – Individual seeks information about various brands from an association
of professionals or an independent group of experts, from those who work with the
product in a profession
a. The individual seeks brand-related knowledge and experience (such as how Brand
A’s performance compares with Brand B’s) from those friends, neighbours,
relatives, or work associates who have reliable information about the brands.
b. The brand individual selects is influenced by observing a seal of approval from an
independent testing agency (such as Good Housekeeping).
c. The individual’s observation of what experts do (such as observing the type of car
that police officer’s drive or the brand of television that repair people buy)
influences his or her choice of a brand.
2. Utilitarian—satisfies the expectations of fellow work associates; the individual’s
decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by their preferences.
a. The Individual’s decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the
preferences of people with whom he or she has social interaction
b. The individual’s decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the
preference of family members.
c. The desire to satisfy the expectations of others has an impact on the individual’s
3. Value-expressive—the individual feels that the purchase or use of a particular brand will
enhance the image others have of him or her.
a. The individual feels that those who purchase or use a particular brand possess the
characteristics that he or she would like to have.
b. The individual sometimes feels that it would be nice to be like the type of person
that advertisements show using a particular brand. c. The individual feels that the people who purchase a particular brand are admired
or respected by others.
d. The individual feels that the purchase of a particular brand would help show
others what he or she is or would like to be (such as an athlete, successful
businessperson, and good parent).
Normative Influence—the reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of
Comparative influence—where decisions about specific brands or activities are affected
Formal vs. Informal groups
Formal groups are any organization that has a recognized structure, complete with a charter,
regular meeting times, and officers.
Informal groups are small, such as a group of friends or students living in a dormitory.
Small informal groups exert a more powerful influence on individual consumers. Since they tend
to be more involved in individual’s day to day lives and to be more important to them because
the groups are high in normative influence.
Brand Community is a set of consumers who share a set of social relationships based on usage
or interest in a product. Members don’t typically live near one another and meet only for brief
periods at organized events called brandfests, such as those sponsored by the brands themselves.
- People who participate feel more positive about the products, which ensures brand
- They are more forgiving of product failures or lapses in service quality and less likely to
- Community members become emotionally involved and become brand missionaries
Consumer Tribe is a group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with each other
because of a shared allegiance to an activity or a product. Usually unstable and short-lived but
members identify with others through shared emotions, beliefs, styles of life and the products
Tribal Marketing is to link one’s product to the needs of a group as a whole.
Aspirational reference groups comprise idealized figures, such as successful businesspeople,
athletes, or performers. The likelihood that people become part of a consumer’s identified reference group is affected by
• Propinquity: As physical distance between people decreases and opportunities for
interaction increase, relationships are more likely to form. Physical nearness is called
• Mere exposure: We come to like people or things simply as a result of seeing them more
often. Greater frequency of contact, even if unintentional, may determine a person’s set of
• Group Cohesiveness: Degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and
value their group membership.
Positive vs Negative reference groups
Most cases consumers model their behaviour to be consistent with what they think the group
expects. In others, consumers may distance themselves from other people or groups that function
as avoidance groups. He or she may avoid buying anything that might identify themselves with
Antibrand Communities—New kind of avoidance group, they unite their disdain for a
celebrity, store, or brand.
2 dimensions that influence when reference groups are important are whether the purchase is to
be consumed publicly or privately and whether it is a luxury or a necessity.As a rule, reference
group effects are more robust for purchases that are (1) luxuries rather than necessities, since
products purchased with discretionary income are subject to individual tastes and preferences
and necessities do n