Recall: claims the main conclusion the author is trying to communicate. Causal claims an assertion that invokes causal relationships between variables. Causal claim: it is gravity that causes items to fall. The basis for decision making and reasoned action. Determining causal claims can be very difficult because: Causal claim: academy university programs (cause) students to have better job offers (effect) Different locations lead to different student opportunities [omitted- variable bias] When differences between groups is claimed need to ask: are there any other differences that may be relevant: correlations between characteristics (not causation) Correlation: two things are related to each other. Casual claim: stronger company vision (cause) leads to better company performance (effect) Correlation can be explained through one of three causal links: Reverse causation: the outcome is in fact the cause, not vice-versa. Perhaps better performance leads to a stronger vision. Effect of 3rd lurking" variable or confounding factor results in a spurious relationship.