ADMS 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Spurious Relationship, Confounding, Theory Of Reasoned Action

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Recall: claims the main conclusion the author is trying to communicate. Causal claims an assertion that invokes causal relationships between variables. The basis for decision making and reasoned action. Determining causal claims can be very difficult because: Multiple causes: there is not always one reason/cause for a particular outcome/effect. E. g. losing weight can be a result of eating healthier and/or exercising. Rival causes; 3 types: difference between groups. Causal claim: academy university students have better job offers (effect) because their programs are better (cause), etc. Academy u has higher admission standards [selection bias] so students who are accepted are smarter. Academy is urban (lots of part-time jobs for students) better work experience [omitted-variable bias: correlations between characteristics (not causation) Correlation: two things are related to each other, but not necessarily causally. Casual claim: stronger company vision (cause) leads to better company performance (effect) Correlation can be explained through one of three causal links:

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