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# ADMS 2400 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Bayesian Probability, Job Performance, Gdal

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Sabrina Deutsch Salamon
Study Guide
Midterm

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Motivation
What is Motivation?
Motivation is defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside
an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and
persistence.
Motivation is a critical consideration because job performance is largely a
function of two factors: motivation and ability
- Engagement- a widely used term in contemporary workplaces that has different
meanings depending on the context; most often refers to motivation, but it can refer to
affective commitment
Expectancy Theory
-A theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to makes choices
among different voluntary responses
Expectancy is a subjective probability,
ranging from 0 to 1 that a specific amount
of effort will result in a specific level of
performance (abbreviated E → P).
Instrumentality is a set of subjective
probabilities, each ranging from 0 to 1 that
successful performance will bring a set of
outcomes (abbreviated P → O).
Valence reflects the anticipated value of
the outcomes associated with
performance (abbreviated V). Can be
positive, negative, or zero
-Total “motivational force” to perform a given action can be described using the following
formula:
oMotivational Force = E  P x Σ[(P O) x V]
Motivational force equals zero if any one of the three beliefs is zero.
- Self-efficacy – the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the
- Need- groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or
physiological consequences
Commonly Studied Needs in OB
- Existence- physiological, safety
- Relatedness- love belongingness
- Control- autonomy, responsibility
- Esteem- self-regard, growth
- Meaning- self-actualization
Extrinsic Motivation- desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on