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[BIOL 1001] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 81 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide
Final

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York
BIOL 1001
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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REMINDER:
- Quiz 2 opens today
NATURE OF SCIENCE (January 11, 2017)
- Properly raising questions and finding answers
- Science has limitations
What can we study with Science?
o Way to study natural world but not supernatural (faith, elves etc.)
o Ex. ULCERS
Burning pain in the abdomen
Gastritis inflammation of stomach lining
Correlated with stomach cancer
Excess Acid Hypothesis testing
Lower stomach acid
Scientific Method:
- Little room for creativity
- Real process of science is rooted in testing
- Should be ongoing and influences and is influenced by society
- Always iterative, meaning you always go back to your hypothesis
Testing Hypotheses is at the Heart of Science
- Have to be able to generate testable hypothesis and make reasonable hypotheses
- Must be useful and must be shown by observation
- Be able to make good predictions
- Scientific method is empirical (based on experience and observations that are rational)
therefore is self-correcting
- Change explanation with evidence that is obtained
**CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION
- Eg. Global warming are a direct effect of the shrinking numbers of pirates (they
correlate but that does not mean that it causes the effect of global warming)
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POSSIBLE STUDY DESIGN:
Excess Acid Hypothesis test:
- Hypothesis: ulcers are the result of excess acid in the stomach which causes
inflammation and erosion of stomach lining
o Group 1: received antacids
o Group 2: received sugar pills (placebo)
Definition of Placebo: a harmless pill or procedure prescribed for more
psychological effect rather than physical
- More acid with the sugar pills because antacids
- Antacids had decreased ulcer symptoms
EX: if H. Pylori occurs w ulcers and you hypothesize it is causative, then what would you predict?
Hypothesis: H. Pylori causes ulcers
Prediction: removal / eradication of bacteria should alleviate symptoms and ulcers
EX CLICKER QUESTION: For 2 months, the treatment group received antibiotics, while the
control group received a placebo, what results would you expect if the old excess acid
hypothesis was true and the reason for ulcers?
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF EXPERMIENTAL DESIGN:
- Cotrol: group that does’t get hypothesized treatet
- Treatment: group that gets hypothesized treatment (experimental group)
DETERMINING THE VALIDITY OF ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES:
- Use evidence to determine which alternatives stronger / weaker
- All ideas (within natural world) open to scrutiny therefore ideas are able to be modified
as new evidence appears
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