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BIOL 1001 Study Guide - Final Guide: Neoteny, Geologic Time Scale, Pseudogene

Course Code
BIOL 1001
Tamara Kelly
Study Guide

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Macroevolution Words to Know
Adaptive radiation: the diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different
ecological niches. Organisms diversity rapidly from an ancestral species into a many new forms.
Particulaly when a change in environment makes new reosources avalilbe which creates new
challenges or opens new environmental niches
Ecological opportunity:
Morphological innovations
Polytomy: is a term for an internal node of a cladogram that has more than two intermediate
descentants (sister taxa)
Mass extinction: the extinction of large number of species withing a relatively short period of
geological time. Due to due to catastrophic global events or widespread emviromental change
that occurs too rapidly for most species to adapt
Backround extinction: refers to the normal extinction rate. It’s the ongoing ectinction of
individual species due to enviomental or ecological factors such as climate change, disease, loss
of habitat, competitive disadvanrage in relation to other species. Occurs in a steady rate over
geological time & as a result of normal evolutionary pricess with only a limited number species
being affects at one time. Ocurrs due to natural selection
Evolutionary developmental biology
Hometotic genes: genes which regulate the development of anatomical structuctures in various
organisms such as insects, mammals & plants. They control the pattern of body formation
during early embroyonic development of organisms. These genes encode proteins called
transcription factors that direct cells to form various part of body
Regulatory gene: a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more genes. A gene
that’s involved in the production of a substance that controls or regulats the expression of one
or more genes, such as the gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the aciticty of
operator gene
Hox genes: group of related gees that control the body plany of an embryo aling the cranio-
caudal (head-tail) axis
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