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York University
BIOL 2020
K Wheaton

Chimpanzees and humans have __% DNA the 95 same Monomers made of Sugar phosphate and a base Replicated DNA called First generation daughter molecules Deoxy vs oxy No OH on the 2’ Carbon (ribose) Sugars in nucleic acid linked by and how? Phosphodiester bond , OH (2C) bonded to Charge? And why? How is it diff in DNA phosphate then bonded to OH (5C) of other. Negative charge to repel Nu (OH) from hydrolyzing the bonds. No exra OH on 2C so it increases its resisitance to hydrolysis Backbone called? Sugar-phosphate backbone Purines and pyrimidnies and groups Adenine(NH2)/guanine (o) and uracil(O)/thymin(CH3 and O)e/cytosine(Nh2) What is a nucleoside Base bonded to a sugar Start and end of dna 5’(phosphate)3’ (OH) DNA nucleoside Deoxy- guanosine/adenosine/cytidine/thymidine (no deoxy)dATP.....dTTP RNA nucleosides Adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridineATP....UTP What part of purine or pyrimidine is bonded N-9 or N1 to (1C) Configuration of the base lying above the N-glycosidic linkage is beta plane of the sugar Nucleotide is? Nucleoside joined to a phosphate group by ester linkage (triphosphate is the monomer) Trinucleotide called ACG E coli has how many nucleotides vs humans 4.6 mill and 3 bill (24 DNA molecules) Largest DNA molecules Indian muntjak (as large as humans but only 3 chromosomes) Largest chromosome 1 bill nucleotides Features of Watson crick model 1. 2 helical polynucleotide cahins (right hand turn) run in opposite directionsm opposite polarity) 2. Sugar phosphate background are on the outside, bases are on the inside 3. Bases are perpendicular to helix axis, bases separated by 3.4 A, structure repeats every 34 A (10 bases per turn) rotation degree of 36 degrees 4. Diameter is 20A 2 base pairing and how many hydrogen bonds G-C (3), A-T (2) 2 ways that base stacking helps the stability 1. Hydrophobic interactions of bases (drive them to inside) exposes more polar parts to outside water 2. Adjacent pairs attract eachother through van der waals forces SUBSTANTIAL TOGETHER Information content is where? Base sequence , therefore safe in the interior of the helix Describe semi-conservative replication When we separate the double helix, the 2 strands will have complementary base pairing therefore the 2 daughters will be the same. When divides again, it makes 2 completely new and 2 would be half the old one. A and B form of DNA B-watsoncrick A-less hydrated, wider and shorter, base pairs tilted rather than perpendicular to axis. Similar to A-DNA RNA-DNA hybrids, double stranded RNA 2 grooves of B form Major and minor, come from glycosidic bonds that are not diametrically opposite eachother. Lined by potential hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor atoms that have specific interactions with proteins, essential for replication because proteins bind to DNA for it Compare major and minor grooves Larger and more accessible and you can distinguish one base pair from another. Major- wider 12A vs 6A and deeper 8.5A vs 7.5A Cleavage enzymes what are, nucleases, Hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds, DNAses, deoxyribonucleases, ribonucleases, RNAses, removal of terminal nucleotides, cut exonuclease, endonuclease insi
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