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BIOL 2020
K Wheaton

Fatty acid tails bound to Scaffold Fatty acids numbered from which end Carboxyl terminus 2=alpha and 3=beta Delta cis 9 means Cis double bond between carbon 9&10 Oxidated= _____ energy rich Less 18:1 means 28 carbons and 1 double bond Most double bonds in what conformation and Cis and kink and lowers melting temperature introduces what and lowers? How to each affect melting temperature? Higher, lower, lower Length of chain, higher unsaturated content, cis bonds Describe triglycerides , links, and how to make Glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains, soap good for energy, attached thru ester linkage (esterification) and soaps are from sodium and potassium salts of long chains of fatty acids and treated with a strong base (use animal fats) How to we use fat stores and how is stored in Fatty acids are cleaved from triacyglycerol and cells? carried to cells, as large globules in cytoplasm. Phospholipids made up of (4) One or more fatty acids, glycerol or sphingosine, a phosphate, and an alcohol attached to phosphate Shape of phosphatidycholine and the direction Rectangular, and opposite direction of 2 acids Linkage to steroids and structure called Hydrocarbon tail on one end and hydroxyl group at the other end , steroid nucleus Cholesterol absent from, what percent in Prokaryotes , 25%, intracellular membranes, membrane lipids in nerve cells and absent no, esterified to fatty acid from? Does free cholesterol exist and why What are glycolipids, derived from and Sugar containing lipids, ubiquitous, acylated by? Simplest glycolipid? sphingosine, fatty acid, cerebroside Lipid anchors used for? And 2 groups To associate a protein with a hydrophobic environment. A) palmitoyl group attached to cysteine at thio bond B) farnesyl group attached to cysteine at carboxyl terminus What is farnesyl Hydrophobic group that attaches to proteins so that it can associate with a membrane Describe nuclear lamin Proteins that forms scaffold for nucleus  regulation of gene expression, it removes the farnesyl group to activate the protein Nuclear lamina made of Intermediate filament What happens with Hutchinson Gilford Lamin A mutate to cause cryptic splice site, progeria syndrome deletes 50 AA, mutant is called progerin, deleted region is target of cleavage, it causes premature cellular aging. Charge outside and inside cell? Different lipids + outside, - inside, and inner and outer leaflet used for? Are membrane polar? How thick are they? They are noncovalent , 2 molecules , electric Electric? polarized What are lipid vesicles/liposomes and clinical Aqueous compartments enclosed by a lipid use bilayer , genetherapy drugs Which molecules increase along line of IonsglucosetrpureaindoleH2O permeability? Peripheral membranes bound by? Electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions , or anchored by lipid anchors Integral proteins, how do they span? In helices, bacteriorhodopsin uses mostly helices (light energy) , madeup of 7 helices,
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