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BIOL 2030 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Peristalsis, Oviduct, Chordate

Course Code
BIOL 2030
Andrew Donini
Study Guide

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BIOL 2030 Animals
Lab 8/9: Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata
Dogfish Dissection
Digestive Tract and Body Cavities
Vertebrates have a coelomic body cavity.
This coelomic space is divided anteriorly into
o Pericardial (heart) cavity
o Posterior pleuroperitoneal cavity; by the transverse septum, a tough, white membrane
The posterior pleuroperitoneal, visceral/abdominal cavity houses the liver, digestive tract and
o This body cavity has muscular walls (mesoderm)
o The visceral cavity is lined on the inside with transparent parietal (somatic) peritoneum.
o It is attached to the muscles of the body wall but it also overlies the urogenital system.
o The parietal peritoneum from each side meet dorsally and ventrally to form a double walled
Mesentery; a fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach, small intestine,
pancreas, spleen, and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen.
This splits to line the digestive tract and other organs as the splanchnic (visceral)
Peritoneum is serous (wet); fluid serves as lubricant to allow frictionless movement
of the organs.
Primary mesenteries are dorsal and ventral. Mesenteries running from organ to organ are usually
called ligaments.
Digestive Organs
Digestive tract is a tube, with coils and branches, with begins at the mouth and ends either at a
cloaca or anus.
Processes food, which moves by peristalsis through process of digestion, absorption and elimination.
Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines.
Accessory organs; pancreas, liver, gallbladder
o Liver, composed of three lobes and a greenish gallbladder.
o Pancreas consists of two lobes; ventral lobe overlying the duodenum and a dorsal lobe, in
the curve between pyloric stomach and duodenum.
Digestive System
The food when swallowed by the MOUTH travels down the tubular ESOPHAGUS, which lies dorsal to
the larynx.
Food is moved down by peristalsis.
Esophagus ends at the CARDIAC SPHINCTER.
The J-shaped STOMACH ends at the pyloric sphincter.
SMALL INTESTINE starts at the pyloric sphincter with the duodenum a long curved piece, then begins
looping back and forth, still descending as the jejunum.
The ascending, lopping portion is the ILEUM and it ends in a T-junction with the LARGE INTESTINE.
Large intestine leads to a muscular RECTUM hidden under the pelvic girdle.
It opens at the ANUS, controlled by sphincter muscles, at the base of the tail.
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