Exam Study Question 1:
1. Thesis: In this day and age, the making of the nation state is a geographical project in that
the drawing of borders determines the statehood of individuals, the cultural identity that is
thereafter socially constructed, and the legitimacy of the new state depends on who has
1 Argument: The drawing of borders determining the statehood of individuals and the
positioning of capital cities and other popular and successful areas makes creating a nation
state a geographical project. (p. 627)
2 Argument: Once defined by a state to be a citizen of the state, the cultural identity formed
will be socially constructed, and may cause regional tensions within the state. [which made
Siam/Thailand successful in that this did not happen] (p.618)
3 Argument: The person or persons creating the new state, and their interests, would help
determine its legitimacy. (Lecture slides on Siam/Thailand re: Nationalist vs. Orientalist)
#1 (from whatever he talked about in class, his power point that day was not very useful)
- Modern sovereignty
o Colonization was based on territory, that was all that mattered to the colonizers
o Due to the acquisition of territories from colonizers they needed to accurately
define borders between countries.
- Southeast Asia Pre-colonization
o Presumes that theres a certain way of thinking. The locals there didnt think they
were defined by territory, but rather who they belonged to (relationship wise).
o Ex: If you were more close to the King in Siam, then that was who you paid your
taxes to and who you belonged to. To them, where you were physically located
were less important than those you gave tribute to.
Due to these two different ideas, people who lived on the land needed to shift their views on
territory from a relationship-based definition to one that was strictly based on physical amounts
of land. We can see this in the example of:
Article: Siam Mapped By: Thongchai Winichakul (starting on R-51)
o The relationship between the central and local rulers was primarily one of
personal subordination under the High King
o The kingdom held together as long as personal subordination to the supreme king
o Major kingdoms: Siam or Burma, and tributary kingdoms: Lanna, Lan Sang, and
the Malay states. These tributaries were regarded as separate kingdoms.
o You paid tribute to the supreme overlord regularly, as a sign of commitment to
renew the allegiance.
- (R-55) o The British were confused by the ambiguity of the tributary relationship. There
were problems going on between the kingdoms, but the British stated that if they
were internal affairs, they would not interfere. (since there were no official
boundaries, they had a hard time distinguishing if kingdoms were dependent or
independent of each other)
o The requests for protection by these Malay states did give the British an
opportunity to claim them as their possessions.
- (R- 57)
o Finally, Siam gave 4 Malay states, to Britain in 1909 in exchange for some
o The formal negotiations for boundary demarcation started at this time.
o Problems emerged because the areas forming the buffer between them were full
of multiply sovereign towns. It had yet to be decided to which country they
Exam Study Question 2:
Rural people are generally less knowledgeable about world affairs, and more isolated then
urban middle class people. Drawing on evidence presented in class about Asia, critique this
Thesis 1: Despite stereotypical belief, rural people are in fact just as knowledgeable about world
affairs when compared to the average urban middle class person.
-connected Example 1: CONNECTED/ COSMOPOLITANS AND EDUCATED
Motorcycle taxis are involved with a wide spectrum of classes. They do different services for
different classes. They know police, they know army, they know government officials, they
know really wealthy people.
-Motorcycle taxis are considered lower-middle class; this quote says otherwise about the
secluded stereotype that is often attached to rural people.
Example 2: POLITICALLY AWARE
-The Red Shirt Occupation (motorcycle taxis, construction workers in Thailand) despite being of
lower-middle class, through this movement show that rural people are politically aware and
-Another example of rural people protesting is in China. In 2010, China was rocked by 180,000
protests, riots and other mass incidentsmore than four times the tally from a decade earlier . . .
Most protests target land grabs by developers and abuses of power by local officials, or unpaid
wages by contract
Thesis / Arguments 2
INFO FOUND IN TEXT BOOK, LECTURE/ PERSONAL NOTES
A large division has always been apparent between the rural (working) and middle class.
The middle class often looks down on the rural class and generally stereotypes them as
uneducated, unsophisticated etc. While at times this may be true, this characterization is not fair
in all evidences.
In order to further explain this, we may look at how Southeast Asia was formed. First
European contacts began dividing up Southeast Asia because they wanted to colonize these
countries. At the time, Europeans were certain that the West was superior to the rest of the world.
They thought themselves to be rational, modern, constantly progressing, democratic and so on.
Whereas, people in the East were generally seen as stagnant, exotic, and despotic. When
Europeans began to colonize Southeast Asia, they were surprised by what they found. There
were elaborate societies with kings, lords, slaves etc.
In comparison to dietary measures taken in the West, those in the East ate better; fish,
meat etc. as opposed to mainly carbs. Not only were East Asians better off nutritionally, but they
also had less disease. Their physical shape was also different from that of Europeans; they were
taller, had better skin, greater posture etc. Their houses were large and intelligently thought out.
In Europe, the houses were small, smoky and unhygienic. Overall, the perceptions they had
about southeast Asians were completely wrong and this scared the Europeans. They were now
intimidated as they could potentially have competition in leading the world. In a sense, rural people symbolize the West and rural the East. Ignorance has led urban
middle class people to think less of rural. While rural people are seen as dumb, they are the ones
who grow/produce our crops, timber, coal and so on. Today, the majority of the rural population
is literate and many have been educated in a school system. The fact that they are highly
knowledgeable in the production of our daily needs is able to put them in power of affairs.
However, because the middle class does not want this to happen, they make it acceptable to
judge the working class so as to remain in control.
Exam Study Question 3:
- (p.68) green revolution was innovations that involved new agricultural techniques using
genetically altered seeds coupled with chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
- (p. 68) the yield of rice and wheat increased dramatically due to cross-breeding crops that
made them able to respond to heavy chemical fertilization and this made the crops
produce extra grain instead of longer stems. (longer stems wasted the nutrients to grow
them and the stems dont get used anyways)
- (p. 68) food became temporarily*** cheaper due to these new varieties that allowed
farmers to grow 2-3 crops a year on a parcel that previously supported only one.
- (slide 17) Farmers income would increase due to the higher yields.
o (Green revolutions - slide 17) India more than doubled its annual grain production
(1970s mid 1990s) and became the worlds leading producers
o (Green revolutions - slide 17) Pakistan became self-sufficient in wheat and rice,
and then exports any surplus for income.
Cause of Hunger
- ***Temporarily cheaper the crops draw heavily on fossil fuels and the question is
whether these higher energy costs will raise the price of food beyond what people in
developing countries can afford.
- (p. 69 textbook) only the wealthy farmers benefit from these solutions because they can
afford the chemicals and technology used for the crop. Not only are they generating
income, but they are able to borrow the wealth from bank loans to purchase the seeds,
fertilizers and pesticides.
- (p.69 - textbook) those without access to loans or family support cannot compete in
Exam Study Question 4:
Explain how a combination of environmental conservation interests (conserving forest or
wilderness) and demand for tree plantation products like rubber, wood fibre, and palm oil