Study Guides (238,492)
Canada (115,180)
York University (9,816)
Geography (66)
GEOG 1410 (11)
all (3)

Final Exam Review.docx

13 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
GEOG 1410

Final Exam Review Cultural Geography Nature of Cities  City as a… o Cultural Theatre o Place of Innovation o Place of Social Networking  Urban areas are important o Places for human living o For making a living o In the human relationship with the environment  (2 tonnes/person 1850  25 tonnes/person 1960)  What do cities do? o Mobilize:  Cities are places where labour, capital, raw materials, production, markets can be set into operation o Decision-Making:  Private sector (business)  Public Sector (Government)  Cities are control points in government and economy, and they govern the decisions made in smaller centres and rural areas o Generative:  Cities generate innovation, information, change, new trends and patterns o Transformative:  A place of crowds, mixing, multicultural  Cities provide the critical mass for ethnic variety, specialised lifestyles, behaviours History of Cities  Emergence of Cities: o From hunter-gatherer societies  agricultural settlements  unequal accumulations of wealth  emergence of the city o First cities emerge in the cultural hearths of agriculture:  Middle East & Mesopotamia ca. 3000 BCE  Indus Valley ca. 2500 BCE  North China ca. 1800 BCE  Central America 100 CE  Andes 800 CE  Transition from Agricultural Societies to Urban Life o Involves/Requires  A productive agricultural system  Changes in social organization  Creation of urban specialty occupations  Organization of a state/empire o Early civilizations were vulnerable, unstable (The Harrapan civilization, the Mayan Civilization, Roman Empire, etc.)  Western Europe o The Modern Western City is the descendant of those of Western Europe o Ancient Mediterranean had major ubran civilizations (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, etc.) th o Roman civilization weakens and collapses in the west in the 5 century o West and Northern Europe largely reverts back to a rural-based society  Urban system shrinks  Long Distance trade weakens  Feudalism  Feudal Europe o Rural society is organized into districtrs controlled by warlords (knights, aristocrats) o Christian Church preserves some classical learning  Revival of Trade o Late Middle ages  Trade with Asia, Middle East, North Africa into northern Europe  Re-emergence of major urban centres along trade routes  Cash economy of long-distance trade erodes feudal society  Commercialization of farming begins  Urban populations begin to build  European Expansion o Europe’s urban system expands into overseas colonies  Industrialization o Economic revival boosts some parts of Europe  But other areas in economic trouble o Many regions face subsistence crises  So people start emigrating to the colonies, the cities and/or develop craft industries to supplement rural income o Begins with textiles, coal and iron  steel, railways, steam o Production of ‘Shock Cities’  Cities that grew quickly during this wave of industrialization caused for awful living conditions for the general public during these times (cities like Manchester, Liverpool, Chicago, Pittsburgh)  Mumbai, Rio, Calcutta, Shanghai, represent the new generation of shock cities  Summary: o There a pattern to the long sweep of urban history o Urban development and change is part of a long-running process o Urban impacts on the environment occur over the long term Urban Systems  Urban centres are connected with one another to varying degrees and at different scales o Globally, regionally, nationally, locally  World Cities Hypothesis: o Global economy is orchestrated by a top tier of important cities:  London, New York, Tokyo (Paris?) o Below is a layer of secondary control points:  Hong Kong, Singapore (Shanghai?) o And so it continues… o Cities act as control points in trading flows and as manufacturing.consuming and transportation centres  World Cities and the Internet o Imporant to information flow  Economic control  Cultural interaction o Some places are more intensely connected  There is a first/third world gap  A gap also exists within the first world  Manuel Castells o Spaces of Flows:  Emphasises flows of goods, information  Occupied by the educated, middle class o Spaces of spaces  Emphasises locality  Occupied by industrial workers o The Spaces of flow tend to dominate the Spaces of spaces  Megacities o 1950 there were only 8 cities with a population <5 Million  1990 33 with a population < 5 million o Increasingly you find these megacities in the third world rd  Many 3 World Urban systems are fairly new  Bloated growth of one city is a hallmark of immature urban systems  Industrialization o Is spreading various forms of modernization globally  Economic modernization  Cultural Change  Population modernization (demographic transition) o Cities key to the geography of the mdoernization process  Global Urban Future o 3 World is rapidly urbanization rd o Humanity will increasingly live in the cities of the 3 World o Global economy is shifting prosperity to advanced urban economies o Huge Problems Suburbs  Types of Suburbs o Industrial cities produced (at least) two types of suburbs:  Where industry seeks cheap, uncongested sites for its activities  Affluent suburbs  People use their money to escape the industrial city  Toronto o Before the 1850s many of the Toronto’s affluent lived downtown o Growing industrial area pushes the affluent further away from the city core  They can either fight the encroaching mess or flee it (they usually flee) o Early 20 century  Changes in transportation allow the affluent to escape beyond the reach of the industrial mess, subrurbs can be further away because people can travel from further away o Post 1945  City grows on booming economy  Affluent and industrial suburbs extend rapidly outwards  Extensive programmes of road building, infrastructure provision  Widespread auto ownership, cheap energy  Mass consumption  Construction industry finds ways to mass build and finance subrurbs  Emergence of corporate developers  Don Mills  Planned Subdivisions o Post 1990  Commuter problems:  Suburbs too far, at too low density for public transit to reach  This was not a problem until the price of oil started to rise in the 70s  Suburbs are heavily subsidised  Adds to public debt  Schools in downtown are being shutdown to be rebuilt in the suburbs  Energy Cost Concerns  Most GTA personal wealth connected to suburban real estate  Inudstrial subrurbs of the outer 416 become places of social and economic need Urban Symbolism  Urban space o Contains symbols o Has symbolic meaning in itself o Is inhabited symbolically  Symbolism is Problematic o Double Hermeneutic:  One mind (one person or group of people) encodes a symbol with meaning  Another mind ‘reads’ it  The people who have created the symbol do not control the meaning the ‘reader’ takes from it  Therefore meaning shifts, symbolism is slippery, not fixed, constantly changing  1885 Conflict o Conflict in the Canadian West between the Metis/First Nations led by Louis Riel and Canadian government o Canadian troops win, Riel is hanged, this success is commemorated with a statue built in Queen’s Park o The Metis View Riel as a martyr, and the conflict as a justified uprising and the Toronto monument is offensive and one sided  November 16 is now Riel Day, the Metis flaw now flies on Riel day in front of City Hall o Slippery symbolism…  Symbols o Symbols within the City  Toronto’s Entertainment District  88 clubs and bars in 1 square km approx.  Used as a selling point for condos  But then you have a conflict between the partygoers and the gentrifier: o Too much noise, disorder o Double Hermenutic  Supposed to be a party place  Entertainment can turn destructive even deadly  Suburbia  Suburbanites LOVE the suburbs and despise the innercity  Inner city dwellers despise the ‘burbs, love the inner city … “Scarberia”  Sense & the City o How do people experience the city? o Psycho-geography  Mental images  Mental maps are biographic o They reflect a person’s identity: age, education, gender, ethnicity, wealth, influence  The sense are the basis of the human experience of the city o Sight, smell, sound, touch, temperature  Some cities are more ‘legible’ than others, more easily understood  Design of Urban environment may aid comfort, reduce stress Urban Problems  Populations are large and growing  Problems: o Feeding & providing a living for people o Urban pressurs on the environment  Conceptual Challenge o Are the cities of the 3 World Fundamentally different from those of the industrialisd countries?  Textbook suggests that they are  Textbook is probably wrong rd st o The problems 3 world cities are currently facing, are the problems 1 world cities faced when they were newly industrialised  Still have many problems of employment, housing, environment, government o The Shanty towns of Nairobi did not look all that different from that of Toronto in the th late 19 century  Informal sector employment exists to a greater degree in the third world, but it still exists here to a lesser extent, but historically it was a huge part of the economy  Third World cities differ in DEGREE, but not KIND of economy Das’ Section Development  Economic aspects of development: o Increase in labour productivity  The ability to produce more in less time, if a Canadian worker produced10x but a Chinese worker only produced 3x Canada is more developed o Per Capita Income (GNP/GDP)  Greater amount and higher growth rate  Gross National Product is connected to industrialization o % of Labour Force in Industry or Non-Agricultural Activities  IN poor countries the vast majority is working in an agricultural capacity, in Canada less than 5% of workers work in agriculture  Problems with Economic views of Development o Intra-Nation Socio-Spatial inequalities in GNP/GDP per capita  An average of people’s income in a given country is not a helpful statistic because the money is never equally distributed o Non-Market Produciton  Also, by defining a country’s development to money earned you reduce a country’s productive activity to money  UN Factors of Human Development: o Health (Life Expectancy) o Knowledge  Educationl; Literacy o Income  Development as Human Freedom: o Freedom from poverty, diease,oppression, etc. o Freedom to decide my political leader, choose profession, etc.  Development us uneven o Development is spatially uneven at every scale Uneven Development  Why? Theories: o Geographical Theories:  Adverse climatic conditions and lack of resources  Reliance on flow resources  Spatial disadvantages o Demographic Factors:  High p
More Less

Related notes for GEOG 1410

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.