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Final Exam Human Geography Questions (Final.docx

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York University
GEOG 1410
Paul Delaney

Geo Questions (Raju 8) 1.WHAT DOES AN INTERNATIONALIST APPROACH TO HUMAN GEOGRAPHY MEAN?  advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations for their benefit  teaches that the people of all nations have more in common than they do differences  nations should treat each other as equals  see the world more connected and with the increase of globalization  since human geography studies the world, its people, communities, and cultures, inter  see everything connected and together 4. HOW IS DEVELOPMENT MEASURED?  Global domestic product – an estimate of the total value of all materials foodstuff goods and services produced by a country in a particular year  Gross national product – similar to GDP but also includes the value of income from abroad (international)  Gross national income – similar to GDP but also includes the value of income from abroad and excludes the taxes and wages a country pays to outside interests  Labour productivity 5. WHAT IS PROBLEMATIC ABOUT GNP per capita AS AN INDICATOR OF DEVELOPMENT?  Because they are based on each nations currency  Using GNI, converted to international dollars, using purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor; international dollars indicate the amount of goods and services one could buy in the US with a given amount of money 6. WHAT ARE THE GEOGRAPHICAL THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT? Internal Causes  High Population growth Rate – stage 2 of DTM death rate up birth rate down, high increase in population; stage 3 – rapid population increase giving what to lower birth rates in developed industrial society  Youthful age structure – the percentage of people aged 15 or younger is way greater than people 65 and old in less developed countries and totalled in the world; in more developed countries the percentage is the same External causes  Neo-colonialism - practice of using capitalism, globalization, and cultural forces to control a country; debt – ask for money- country lends money – payment back is way greater than borrowed – greater debt 7. WHY IS THE MALTHUSIAN EXPLANATION OF POVERTY PROBLEMATIC?  by arguing that population growth generally expanded in times and in regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary resources caused distress  population pressure would be the dependent variable and the resources are the independent variable 12. HOW DOES ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION AFFECT THE LESS DEVELOPED WORLD?  Geographically the single most important feature of economic development is that it is highly uneven. At the global scale this unevenness takes the form of core periphery contrast. These contrasts raise important issues of spatial justice that are closely bound up with gender inequality and social justice. Similar core periphery contrasts and equally important issues of spatial justice exist at a regional scale;  I know it’s the same as before but its like the same question 13. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE?  Shifting cultivation – a system in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs; Swidden – land that is cleared using and slash and burn process and is ready for cultivation  Intensive subsistence agriculture – practice that involves the effective and efficient use of fertilizer through human labour of a small parcel of land to maximize crop yield  Pastoralism – subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food shelter and clothing 18) HOW DOES VON THUNEN EXPLAIN THE GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE ? A) Von Thunen explains the geography of agricultural practice by stating that the geographical pattern of agricultural land use around cites was often directly and profoundly affected by their proximity to such centres. To put it simply, space and distance are the main determining factors that govern the choice of agricultural production that any farmer chooses to pursue. The further you have to transport your food to the market the more it’s going to cost you and the less fresh it is going to be. The closer your land was to the market the higher rent per hectare it would cost you to own that land. The land close to the markets were usually devoted to high value, perishable products. (pg. 360-chart on 361) 22) WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON AGRICULTURE? A) Some effects of globalization on agriculture include elimination or erosion of some forms of farming, core countries interfering in the agriculture of peripheral countries, introduction of risky technology like super plants which can produce its own fertilizers and pesticides, be grown in adverse climate and can increase crop yield, put control of farming from farmers to biotech companies, privatization and co-modification of nature, seeds for example, increased food miles which is a measure of distance traveled by food items from the farm to the consumer, and caused changes in food regimes. 23) WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT INTERNATIONAL FOOD REGIMES? A) The different international food regimes are the colonial regime, the post-colonial regime, and the new agricultural regime. (notes) OR the different international food regimes are the wheat and livestock food regimes, and the fresh fruits and vegetables food regime. (pg. 373-75) 24) WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL-POLITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCE CANADIAN AGRICULTURE? WHAT IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TRENDS IN CANADIAN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF FARM-OWNERSHIP? EXPLAIN THIS TREND. A) The Canadian environment has put limitations on agriculture in Canada. The mountains and glacial erosion had reduced available land, the harsh winters have shortened growing seasons, due to these most of Canadian farm lands lies within 200 km of US border. Political factors have had an influence on Canadian agriculture as well. With the abolishment of the “Crow Rate” in 1995 farmers were more keen to selling their wheat locally as without the crow rate the cost of transporting wheat doubled. Also due to the high cost farmers began to grow wheat in order to feed it to livestock and then export the animals as that was now economically more advantageous than exporting wheat itself. (pg. 362-65) 26) HOW ARE NATION-STATES FORMED? (pg396) A) Nation-states are formed when a group of people with the same religion, language, history, political identity or another aspect of their culture come together and live in the same geographical area as well as are governed by their own state. 30) WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STATE-SHAPE? A) There are five different types of state-shape:  Compact: distance from center to boundary doesn’t vary much.  Elongated: state isn’t compact (ex. Chile)  Prorupted: an otherwise compact state except for a little extension (ex. Nambia)  Perforated: one state completely surrounding another (ex. Lesotho in South Africa)  Fragmented: contains discontinuous regions, separated by water or intervening states (ex. Indonesia) (lecture notes-Mar 12) 31) What are different types of state boundary? There are four types of state boundaries  -Physical: deserts (Sahara), mountains, rivers  -Cultural: Geometric (straight lines on a map)  Religious (India Pakistan)  Language (European states)  Rectilinear boundaries (Lecture notes- march 12) 32) In what way is the state a territorial entity?  Bounded space of the state defines what is legal and enforces its law within a bounded space it cannot seek justice from another state.  State-system multiple states  Internal territorially of the state law makers usually represent territorially defined populations  The territorial division of labor  Territorial interventions (national parks etc. etc.) 35) How does the state regulate relations between business and labor?  Reproduction of labor power  Education and health  Unemployment benefits and reserve army  Business low wages  State to put purchasing power in the hands of workers 40. WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN CAPITALISM AND IMPERIALISM?  Imperialism = relation of exploitation and domination between countries  Capitalism = an economic system where wealth is controlled by private individuals  Both rely on exploiting those that are weaker than it 41. HOW IS NEW IMPERIALISM NEW? A) New imperialism is new because it relies dominantly on economic mechanisms But military intervention is not ruled out. 44. Why does the nation state seem to have lost its powers ?or has there been a death of the nation state A) Globalization has undermined state supremacy and has allowed people to be loyal to other countries and states. There is also more outside cultural influence people are no longer and similar as they once were. Other countries now have say and influence on other countries actions (i.e. civil rights) *Concepts to know: PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOUR; LABOUR STRUGGLE; INCOME; AND UNEMPLOYMENT/ UNDER-EMPLOYMENT. CONSTRUCT A GENERAL EXPLANATION OF THIRD WORLD UNDER- DEVELOPMENT BY SEEING THESE CONCEPTS IN THEIR MUTUAL RELATIONSHIP. Productivity of labour is the efficiency with which we produce means of existence. Income involves the amount of money one person/family makes. In a farmers case low productivity means low income however for a person working in a factory located in a third world country they may produce a high quantity of goods but get paid very low. Even the less industrialized economies hold the higher percentage of the Labour Force in agriculture as well as receive the lowest income.  Expand the reserve army  Reserve Army – refers to the unemployed and under employed that have the potential to work as required. The greater the Reserve army the lower the income. Why higher someone for 13$ an hour when you can hire someone for cheaper. SO many people are looking and need jobs and that’s why the labour is so cheap.  ECONOMIC MECHANISMS – UN- AND UNDER-EMPLOYMENT LOW WAGES  LOW PRODUCTIVITY  LOW INCOME – LOW PRODUCTIVITY  LESS INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY, TRANSPORTATION, ETC.  LOW PRODUCTIVITY  LOW INCOME – POVERTY LIMITED MARKET  MORE POVERTY (CALIFORNIA VS INDIA) *WHY IS IT THAT MANY POORER COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD MAY NOT BENEFIT MUCH FROM ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION? Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology, and capital  MNC’s are accused of social injustice, unfair working conditions. Ex; Slave labour wages, poor living, working conditions.  Has led to exploitation of labour  Richest 20% consume 86% of the worlds resources  Poorest 80% consume 14% of the worlds resources  Counties are so overly populated that there isn’t enough money in the economy for that country to support everyone  Imperialism- Richer countries get richer poorer get poorer  Poorer country loses business because richer country opened up the same business but sells that product at a cheaper price which results in business failure and a loss of jobs.  These companies give low wages  They do not develop with the country, instead they bring back all the profit to the home country, they do not reinvested in the third world country to create more jobs -Sea Saw movement. *WHY IS THE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF EXISTING SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION A MIXED BLESSING? ANSWER THIS BY USING THE EXAMPLE OF EITHER T
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