Geo Questions (Raju 8)
1.WHAT DOES AN INTERNATIONALIST APPROACH TO HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations for
teaches that the people of all nations have more in common than they do
nations should treat each other as equals
see the world more connected and with the increase of globalization
since human geography studies the world, its people, communities, and
see everything connected and together
4. HOW IS DEVELOPMENT MEASURED?
Global domestic product – an estimate of the total value of all materials
foodstuff goods and services produced by a country in a particular year
Gross national product – similar to GDP but also includes the value of income
from abroad (international)
Gross national income – similar to GDP but also includes the value of income
from abroad and excludes the taxes and wages a country pays to outside
5. WHAT IS PROBLEMATIC ABOUT GNP per capita AS AN INDICATOR OF
Because they are based on each nations currency
Using GNI, converted to international dollars, using purchasing power parity
(PPP) conversion factor; international dollars indicate the amount of goods
and services one could buy in the US with a given amount of money
6. WHAT ARE THE GEOGRAPHICAL THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT?
High Population growth Rate – stage 2 of DTM death rate up birth rate down,
high increase in population; stage 3 – rapid population increase giving what
to lower birth rates in developed industrial society
Youthful age structure – the percentage of people aged 15 or younger is way
greater than people 65 and old in less developed countries and totalled in the
world; in more developed countries the percentage is the same
Neo-colonialism - practice of using capitalism, globalization, and cultural
forces to control a country; debt – ask for money- country lends money –
payment back is way greater than borrowed – greater debt 7. WHY IS THE MALTHUSIAN EXPLANATION OF POVERTY PROBLEMATIC?
by arguing that population growth generally expanded in times and in
regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary
resources caused distress
population pressure would be the dependent variable and the resources are
the independent variable
12. HOW DOES ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION AFFECT THE LESS DEVELOPED
Geographically the single most important feature of economic development
is that it is highly uneven. At the global scale this unevenness takes the form
of core periphery contrast. These contrasts raise important issues of spatial
justice that are closely bound up with gender inequality and social justice.
Similar core periphery contrasts and equally important issues of spatial
justice exist at a regional scale;
I know it’s the same as before but its like the same question
13. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE?
Shifting cultivation – a system in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility
by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs; Swidden – land that is
cleared using and slash and burn process and is ready for cultivation
Intensive subsistence agriculture – practice that involves the effective and
efficient use of fertilizer through human labour of a small parcel of land to
maximize crop yield
Pastoralism – subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of
animals to satisfy the human needs of food shelter and clothing
18) HOW DOES VON THUNEN EXPLAIN THE GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURAL
A) Von Thunen explains the geography of agricultural practice by stating that the
geographical pattern of agricultural land use around cites was often directly and
profoundly affected by their proximity to such centres. To put it simply, space and
distance are the main determining factors that govern the choice of agricultural production that any farmer chooses to pursue. The further you have to transport
your food to the market the more it’s going to cost you and the less fresh it is going
to be. The closer your land was to the market the higher rent per hectare it would
cost you to own that land. The land close to the markets were usually devoted to
high value, perishable products. (pg. 360-chart on 361)
22) WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON AGRICULTURE?
A) Some effects of globalization on agriculture include elimination or erosion of
some forms of farming, core countries interfering in the agriculture of peripheral
countries, introduction of risky technology like super plants which can produce its
own fertilizers and pesticides, be grown in adverse climate and can increase crop
yield, put control of farming from farmers to biotech companies, privatization and
co-modification of nature, seeds for example, increased food miles which is a
measure of distance traveled by food items from the farm to the consumer, and
caused changes in food regimes.
23) WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT INTERNATIONAL FOOD REGIMES?
A) The different international food regimes are the colonial regime, the post-colonial
regime, and the new agricultural regime. (notes) OR the different international food
regimes are the wheat and livestock food regimes, and the fresh fruits and
vegetables food regime. (pg. 373-75)
24) WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL-POLITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCE
CANADIAN AGRICULTURE? WHAT IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TRENDS
IN CANADIAN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF FARM-OWNERSHIP? EXPLAIN THIS
A) The Canadian environment has put limitations on agriculture in Canada. The
mountains and glacial erosion had reduced available land, the harsh winters have
shortened growing seasons, due to these most of Canadian farm lands lies within
200 km of US border. Political factors have had an influence on Canadian agriculture
as well. With the abolishment of the “Crow Rate” in 1995 farmers were more keen to
selling their wheat locally as without the crow rate the cost of transporting wheat
doubled. Also due to the high cost farmers began to grow wheat in order to feed it to
livestock and then export the animals as that was now economically more
advantageous than exporting wheat itself. (pg. 362-65)
26) HOW ARE NATION-STATES FORMED? (pg396)
A) Nation-states are formed when a group of people with the same religion,
language, history, political identity or another aspect of their culture come together
and live in the same geographical area as well as are governed by their own state.
30) WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STATE-SHAPE?
A) There are five different types of state-shape:
Compact: distance from center to boundary doesn’t vary much.
Elongated: state isn’t compact (ex. Chile) Prorupted: an otherwise compact state except for a little extension (ex.
Perforated: one state completely surrounding another (ex. Lesotho in South
Fragmented: contains discontinuous regions, separated by water or
intervening states (ex. Indonesia) (lecture notes-Mar 12)
31) What are different types of state boundary?
There are four types of state boundaries
-Physical: deserts (Sahara), mountains, rivers
-Cultural: Geometric (straight lines on a map)
Religious (India Pakistan)
Language (European states)
Rectilinear boundaries (Lecture notes- march 12)
32) In what way is the state a territorial entity?
Bounded space of the state defines what is legal and enforces its law within a
bounded space it cannot seek justice from another state.
State-system multiple states
Internal territorially of the state law makers usually represent territorially
The territorial division of labor
Territorial interventions (national parks etc. etc.)
35) How does the state regulate relations between business and labor?
Reproduction of labor power
Education and health
Unemployment benefits and reserve army
Business low wages
State to put purchasing power in the hands of workers
40. WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN CAPITALISM AND IMPERIALISM?
Imperialism = relation of exploitation and domination between countries
Capitalism = an economic system where wealth is controlled by private
Both rely on exploiting those that are weaker than it
41. HOW IS NEW IMPERIALISM NEW?
A) New imperialism is new because it relies dominantly on economic mechanisms
But military intervention is not ruled out.
44. Why does the nation state seem to have lost its powers ?or has there been
a death of the nation state A) Globalization has undermined state supremacy and has allowed people to be
loyal to other countries and states. There is also more outside cultural influence
people are no longer and similar as they once were. Other countries now have say
and influence on other countries actions (i.e. civil rights) *Concepts to know:
PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOUR; LABOUR STRUGGLE; INCOME; AND
CONSTRUCT A GENERAL EXPLANATION OF THIRD WORLD UNDER-
DEVELOPMENT BY SEEING THESE CONCEPTS IN THEIR MUTUAL
Productivity of labour is the efficiency with which we produce means of existence.
Income involves the amount of money one person/family makes. In a farmers case
low productivity means low income however for a person working in a factory
located in a third world country they may produce a high quantity of goods but get
paid very low. Even the less industrialized economies hold the higher percentage of
the Labour Force in agriculture as well as receive the lowest income.
Expand the reserve army
Reserve Army – refers to the unemployed and under employed that have the
potential to work as required. The greater the Reserve army the lower the
income. Why higher someone for 13$ an hour when you can hire someone for
cheaper. SO many people are looking and need jobs and that’s why the labour
is so cheap.
– UN- AND UNDER-EMPLOYMENT LOW WAGES LOW PRODUCTIVITY
– LOW PRODUCTIVITY LESS INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY,
TRANSPORTATION, ETC. LOW PRODUCTIVITY LOW INCOME
– POVERTY LIMITED MARKET MORE POVERTY (CALIFORNIA VS
*WHY IS IT THAT MANY POORER COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD MAY NOT
BENEFIT MUCH FROM ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION?
Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national
economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of
goods, service, technology, and capital
MNC’s are accused of social injustice, unfair working conditions.
Ex; Slave labour wages, poor living, working conditions.
Has led to exploitation of labour
Richest 20% consume 86% of the worlds resources
Poorest 80% consume 14% of the worlds resources
Counties are so overly populated that there isn’t enough money in the
economy for that country to support everyone
Imperialism- Richer countries get richer poorer get poorer
Poorer country loses business because richer country opened up the same
business but sells that product at a cheaper price which results in business
failure and a loss of jobs.
These companies give low wages They do not develop with the country, instead they bring back all the profit to
the home country, they do not reinvested in the third world country to create
more jobs -Sea Saw movement.
*WHY IS THE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE
FRAMEWORK OF EXISTING SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION A MIXED
BLESSING? ANSWER THIS BY USING THE EXAMPLE OF EITHER T