Midterm GREAT

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
York University
HEB 1000
of 86
Aboriginal Peoples of the Southern Great Lakes
Ontario and Quebec are focal points of industrialization and population (which plays a
significant role in driving the nation)
Other areas of the country are beginning to drive the nation (natural resources/rising
The defeat of the French in Quebec in 1769-Had constituted a turning point in Canadian
Colonialism: Was used as a means of converting/occupying inferior civilizations
Imposition of foreign rule on another community
Involves dispossessing original inhabitants of land
Sometimes involves decimating the population but usually this is not possible (in early
Settling the land with immigrants
Justified by ideology of ‘worthiness’ (are in some way inferior mentally, physically
through class (civilization), they are also technologically inferior
Proceeds in different ways depending on size of indigenous population and scale of
This had occurred in the 1500s, when countries had discovered the ‘Americas’
Christianity was a belief that was used to covert/conquer people to save their
Mercantilism : Within colonialism there are different economic systems, which vary based on the
level of organization (Europeans)-there are different phases
European power attempts to control territory
(Where countries maintain their superiority in order to receive a consistent supply
of goods through trade)
Closed economic system
1600-19th century Mercantilism is closed (countries maintain control-France and
These systems of control are what influence aboriginals opinions towards these
countries, as well as immigrants (non-aboriginals)
Provides privileged access to colonial imports and Imperial exports
Different from free trade which emerges in early to mid-1800s
Formation of colonies
Private trading companies
Are organized by Merchants, who are attempting to make a profit through trade
The late 1607 in Virginia, 1608 in New France (Quebec)- are privately organized
up until the late 1600s when they are taken control by countries.
Religious colonies
Colonies by conquest
England (masitustius) and France (Quebec and Acadia)
Direct political control emerges later as region’s importance to European economies is
Contact; pre-contact or pre-historic
Is when Europeans have direct face to face contact (Columbus)
First contact was around the 1500s-1600 (east north America)
proto-contact or proto-historic
Where aboriginal people have not directly confronted Europeans they have been
affected by them (through exposure to European goods
Settler societies
Aboriginal, Amerindian, First Nation, Indian, Native American, natives.
What is a tribe?
An Aboriginal community who live in the same geographical area, same
language, marry to one another and they share common political and cultural
What is a Confederacy?
Individual tribes which form a common political front against an external
The St. Lawrence River provides access to the ocean/Ontario and was a major
entry point to Lake Ontario and southern Ontario.
Which had generated entry points to promote trade
Was extremely important, for it was the main access point for trade/movement
Conclusion :
Diversity of aboriginal societies at time of contact
In southern Great Lakes, horticultural societies that lay in path of westward movement
Both British and French will move through this area because of its central location
The river below the St. Lawrence was critical towards trade, colonization and
In this period Montreal is the hub which is strategically, politically and economically
oThis is through the variety of access pointes it provides to the St. Lawrence
oHudson’s bay is another access (foundation of the Hudson’s bay company)
Eastern North America
oMi’kmaqis currently the largest indigenous population (list on moodle)
oThese people live through fishing, hunting (deer, caribou and moose-difficult to
find) and gathering (which is the basis of their cultural, social and economical
oTheir economy is not based on cultivation
Meaning they are more spread out