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HIST 3622 Quiz 2 Terms.docx

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HIST 3622
Boyd Cothran

1 HIST 3622 Quiz 2 Terms Battle of Antietam: September 17, 1862 battle between McClellan (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) at Antietam Creek in Maryland. Strategic union victory. Battle of Vicksburg: Mid-1863 battle between Grant (Union) and Pemberton (Confederacy) in Mississippi. Union victory here combined with Lee’s loss at Gettysburg as turning point of war. Siege of Petersburg: 1864-1865 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virginia ending with Union victory. Battle of Shiloh: April 1862 battle in Tennessee resulting in Union victory. Bloodiest battle. Battle of Gettysburg: July 1863 battle between Meade (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Pennsylvania resulting in Union Victory. President Lincoln would redefine the purpose of the war and honor the fallen soldiers in his Gettysburg address in November. Battle of Chattanooga: Series of battles led by Grant (Union) and Bragg (Confederacy) between 1862 and 1863 in Tennessee. Resulted in retreat of Confederacy to Chickamauga. Peninsula Campaign: 1862 campaign between McClellan (Union) and Johnston (Confederacy) in Virginia. Failure of Union to make amphibious foothold on Richmond, Virginia. The Seven Days Battle: Following the Peninsula Campaign, Johnston (Confederacy) was replaced by Lee and was able to put up an aggressive pushback against Union advances. Election of 1860: Republican Abraham Lincoln won against Southern Democrat John Breckinridge; nation already divided on issue of slavery; Democrats split into northern and southern factions; seven southern states seceded and formed the Confederacy; Civil War begins Election of 1864: Republican Abraham Lincoln won re-election against Northern Democrat George McClellan; Northern democrats split between pro-war and pro-peace factions. Battle of Fort Sumter: April 1861 siege by Beauregard (Confederacy) against Union garrison Fort Sumter under command of Anderson (Union). Union surrender after two days of bombardment alerted Washington D.C. of secession and the beginning of the Civil War. First Battle of Bull Run: July 21, 1861 battle between McDowell (Union) and Johnston/ Beauregard (Confederacy) in Virginia led to Confederate victory. Second Battle of Bull Run: August 1862 battle between Pope (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virginia continued with Confederate victory. Battle of the Wilderness: May 1864 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virginia. Grant’s disengagement led to the battle in Spotsylvania. Battle of Cold Harbor: Spring 1864 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virginia led to a bloody Confederate victory after failing to take over Lee’s fortified positions. Battle of Fort Henry & Fort Donelson: February 1862 campaigns between Grant (Union) and Tilghman/Floyd (Confederacy) in Tennessee. Union victory in the Western theatre of the war. Burning of Atlanta: 1864 struggle between Sherman (Union) and Hood (Confederacy) in Atlanta, Georgia led to Union occupation and victory. Boosted Northern morale in the Civil War. Burning of Columbia: February 1865 struggle between Sherman (Union) and McLaws (Confederacy) in Columbia, South Carolina led to fire and destruction of city. Appomattox Court House: April 9, 1865 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virginia led to Union victory and Lee’s signing of his surrender at the site. Battle of Spotsylvania: May 1864 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virigina led to Grant’s disengagement and another attack to weaken Lee’s flank. Second Confiscation Act: Essentially the first emancipation law in 1862 which allowed the government to seize property and emancipate slaves from rebel supporters (Confederates). 2 Lincoln’s First Inauguration: President Lincoln made a speech in 1861 which was primarily addressed to the South that recently had seven states secede and form the Confederacy, listing his intentions and policies as well as consequences for rebelling against the Union. Lincoln’s Second Inauguration: President Lincoln made a speech in 1865 addressing the pragmatic defense of his Reconstruction plan, to which he sought to avoid harsh treatment of the South upon occupation and reinstatement to the Union. Emancipation Proclamation: January 1, 1863 proclamation by President Lincoln declaring all slaves in Confederate states to be forever free. But this did not serve slaves in Northern states or slave states loyal to the union. The 13 Amendment: 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution which outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude except as punishment for a crime. Further step for Emancipation. The Confederacy’s Conscription Act: 1862 act declaring mandatory 3-year conscription service for white males under age 35. Substitution was allowed (favoring elitism), but public servants, essential servicemen, and slaves were prohibited from enlisting. Allowed exemption for plantation owners (with 20 slaves or more) from mandatory conscription. The Union’s Conscription Act: 1863 law that stipulated eligible men to be mandatory for military service or else pay a $300 fine (expensive at the time). Volunteers however were more lured into the rewards by the Federal Treasury for joining. The Dismissal of Southern Cadets at West Point after Fort Sumter: After the incident at Fort Sumter in 1861, the Union dismissed most Southern Cadets from West Point seeing them as a potential threat to the security of the Union at the time. Abraham Lincoln: First Republican nominee to be elected as the President. Though despising slavery, Lincoln called for the gradual abolition rather than immediate emancipation. His election sparked secessions and war amongst the Southern states. Jefferson Davis: Mississippi Senator and first (and last) president of the Confederate States of America. Initially argued against secession, but agreed that states have immutable autonomy to secede from the union. George McClellan: Prominent role as Union commander-in-chief from 1861 to 1862 as he was noted for bringing high morale and training to soldiers, but paranoia and meticulous overestimation of the enemy resulted in his removal from his position and later from the military. Robert E. Lee: Prominent role as Confederate general and military tactician although he had desires to stay with the Union and was originally offered by Lincoln a post in the Union army. Lee followed his home state instead and served in the Confederacy as a result. George Armstrong Custer: Union army officer graduated las
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