HIST 3622 Quiz 3 Terms
The 13 Amendment: 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution which outlaws slavery
and invothntary servitude except as punishment for a crime.
The 14 Amendment: 1868 amendment to the United States Constitution which defines
citizenship, Privileges of Immunities Clause, Due Process, and equal protection.
The 15 Amendment: 1870 amendment to the United States Constitution which prohibits the
denial of citizens to vote for federal office based on race, color, or previous status of servitude.
The Transcontinental Railroad: Railroad network attempting to connect the Pacific states (e.g.
California) with the Central states (e.g. Iowa) between 1863 (during the Civil War) and 1869.
The Morrill Act of 1862: Allowed the creation of land-grant colleges (universities) during the
Civil War and allowed these newly-established (agricultural) institutions of higher learning to
receive state benefits and designations in the public education system.
The Homestead Act: 1862 act that allowed the distribution of 160-acre unincorporated federal
lands in the West to anyone who did not take up arms against the United States. The condition
was to improve the fertility or productivity of some kind on the land within 5 years of settlement.
Election of 1868: Republican Ulysses S. Grant won the election against Democrat Horatio
Seymour in the first federal election after the Civil War. This election was meant to replace
Andrew Johnson. Only Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas were absent from participation as they
have not yet been fully readmitted to the Union.
Election of 1872: Republican Ulysses S. Grant won the re-election against Liberal Republican
Horace Greeley in the first federal election after the re-admission of all former Confederate states.
Although Greeley died during the electoral process, prior to the votes cast by the Electoral
College, most of the voters were divided between four different candidates, therefore allowing
Grant to easily fortify his re-election stronghold.
Election of 1876: Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the election against Democrat Samuel J.
Tilden by Electoral College, despite Tilden having the higher count in popular vote. This raised
tensions between the supporters of the Electoral College and supporters of Majority Rule
(popular vote). The votes itself became controversial in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina.
The Compromise of 1877: Also known as “the Great Betrayal,” the compromise settled the
controversy surrounding the 1876 Federal Election and wrapped up the military occupation in
South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, the last of the former Confederate states re-admitted to
the Union to have military control removed. Many Republicans in these states also left, leaving
the new “Redeemer” Democrats back in control.
The Reconstruction Acts: Series of reconstruction phases led by President Lincoln, Johnson,
Grant, and Hayes regarding the re-incorporation and transformation of Southern society back
into the Union.
Lincoln’s Second Inauguration: President Lincoln made a speech in 1865 addressing the
pragmatic defense of his Reconstruction plan, to which he sought to avoid harsh treatment of the
South upon occupation and reinstatement to the Union.
Appomattox Court House: April 9, 1865 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy)
in Virginia led to Union victory and Lee’s signing of his surrender at the site.
Battle of the Wilderness: Battle between Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate
General Robert E. Lee on May 1864 that became inconclusive and resulted in bloody casualties.
The aftermath of this part of the Overland Campaign by Grant led to his disengagement and
continued pursuit of Lee until the fall of Richmond, Virginia and Lee’s surrender at Appomattox. 2
Sherman’s March: Also known as Union General William Sherman’s Savannah Campaign, the
campaign was conducted in the fall of 1864 with the intent of destroying the South’s physical
and psychological capabilities to wage war on the Union.
Battle of Cold Harbor: Spring 1864 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in
Virginia led to a bloody Confederate victory after failing to take over Lee’s fortified positions.
First Memorial Day: Officially observed by the Union on May 1, 1865 in Charleston, South
Carolina, following President Lincoln’s assassination.
Colfax Massacre: An event on April 13, 1873 (Easter Sunday) in Louisiana which marked a riot
between angry and armed whites against freedmen and state militia regarding the outcome of the
contested election of Louisiana’s governor.
Modoc War: War between United States General Frank Wheaton and the Modoc Native
American tribe led by Captain Jack in Oregon territory. It lasted from 1872 to 1873 with United
States victory and execution of Captain Jack and few others after trial by the federal government.
Dakota War: War between United States General Pope and Sioux Native American leader Little
Crow during 1862 in the newly formed state of Minnesota. Resulting in U.S. victory, Little Crow
was forced to flee to Canada.
Slaughterhouse Cases: 1873 USSC interpretation in Louisiana of the relatively new 14 th
Amendment to the constitution, the clause defined US citizenship and not state citizenship.
Butcher case in Louisiana also highlighted the violation of 13th Amendment and conflicting
view of law regarding property.
Jourdon Anderson: Also known as Jordan Anderson, he was a former slave who was famous
for writing letters to his former master, Colonel P.H. Anderson (whom the former adopted the
surname of the latter) after receiving a letter from the latter regarding Jordan’s return to the
plantation as a working freedmen for his former master.
Abraham Lincoln: First Republican nominee to be elected as the President. Though despising
slavery, Lincoln called for the gradual abolition rather than immediate emancipation. His
election sparked secessions and war amongst the Southern states.
Jefferson Davis: Mississippi Senator and first (and last) president of the Confederate States of
America. Initially argued against secession, but agreed that states have immutable autonomy to
secede from the union.
George McClellan: Prominent role as Union commander-in-chief from 1861 to 1862 as he was
noted for bringing high morale and training to soldiers, but paranoia and meticulous
overestimation of the enemy resulted in his removal from his position and later from the military.
Robert E. Lee: Prominent role as Confederate general and military tactician although he had
desires to stay with the Union and was originally offered by Lincoln a post in the Union army.
Lee followed his home state instead and served in the Confederacy as a result.
Salmon P. Chase: Politician, U.S. Senator from Ohio, Oh