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HIST 3622 Quiz 3 Terms.docx

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York University
HIST 3622
Boyd Cothran

1 HIST 3622 Quiz 3 Terms The 13 Amendment: 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution which outlaws slavery and invothntary servitude except as punishment for a crime. The 14 Amendment: 1868 amendment to the United States Constitution which defines citizenship, Privileges of Immunities Clause, Due Process, and equal protection. The 15 Amendment: 1870 amendment to the United States Constitution which prohibits the denial of citizens to vote for federal office based on race, color, or previous status of servitude. The Transcontinental Railroad: Railroad network attempting to connect the Pacific states (e.g. California) with the Central states (e.g. Iowa) between 1863 (during the Civil War) and 1869. The Morrill Act of 1862: Allowed the creation of land-grant colleges (universities) during the Civil War and allowed these newly-established (agricultural) institutions of higher learning to receive state benefits and designations in the public education system. The Homestead Act: 1862 act that allowed the distribution of 160-acre unincorporated federal lands in the West to anyone who did not take up arms against the United States. The condition was to improve the fertility or productivity of some kind on the land within 5 years of settlement. Election of 1868: Republican Ulysses S. Grant won the election against Democrat Horatio Seymour in the first federal election after the Civil War. This election was meant to replace Andrew Johnson. Only Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas were absent from participation as they have not yet been fully readmitted to the Union. Election of 1872: Republican Ulysses S. Grant won the re-election against Liberal Republican Horace Greeley in the first federal election after the re-admission of all former Confederate states. Although Greeley died during the electoral process, prior to the votes cast by the Electoral College, most of the voters were divided between four different candidates, therefore allowing Grant to easily fortify his re-election stronghold. Election of 1876: Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the election against Democrat Samuel J. Tilden by Electoral College, despite Tilden having the higher count in popular vote. This raised tensions between the supporters of the Electoral College and supporters of Majority Rule (popular vote). The votes itself became controversial in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina. The Compromise of 1877: Also known as “the Great Betrayal,” the compromise settled the controversy surrounding the 1876 Federal Election and wrapped up the military occupation in South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, the last of the former Confederate states re-admitted to the Union to have military control removed. Many Republicans in these states also left, leaving the new “Redeemer” Democrats back in control. The Reconstruction Acts: Series of reconstruction phases led by President Lincoln, Johnson, Grant, and Hayes regarding the re-incorporation and transformation of Southern society back into the Union. Lincoln’s Second Inauguration: President Lincoln made a speech in 1865 addressing the pragmatic defense of his Reconstruction plan, to which he sought to avoid harsh treatment of the South upon occupation and reinstatement to the Union. Appomattox Court House: April 9, 1865 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virginia led to Union victory and Lee’s signing of his surrender at the site. Battle of the Wilderness: Battle between Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee on May 1864 that became inconclusive and resulted in bloody casualties. The aftermath of this part of the Overland Campaign by Grant led to his disengagement and continued pursuit of Lee until the fall of Richmond, Virginia and Lee’s surrender at Appomattox. 2 Sherman’s March: Also known as Union General William Sherman’s Savannah Campaign, the campaign was conducted in the fall of 1864 with the intent of destroying the South’s physical and psychological capabilities to wage war on the Union. Battle of Cold Harbor: Spring 1864 battle between Grant (Union) and Lee (Confederacy) in Virginia led to a bloody Confederate victory after failing to take over Lee’s fortified positions. First Memorial Day: Officially observed by the Union on May 1, 1865 in Charleston, South Carolina, following President Lincoln’s assassination. Colfax Massacre: An event on April 13, 1873 (Easter Sunday) in Louisiana which marked a riot between angry and armed whites against freedmen and state militia regarding the outcome of the contested election of Louisiana’s governor. Modoc War: War between United States General Frank Wheaton and the Modoc Native American tribe led by Captain Jack in Oregon territory. It lasted from 1872 to 1873 with United States victory and execution of Captain Jack and few others after trial by the federal government. Dakota War: War between United States General Pope and Sioux Native American leader Little Crow during 1862 in the newly formed state of Minnesota. Resulting in U.S. victory, Little Crow was forced to flee to Canada. Slaughterhouse Cases: 1873 USSC interpretation in Louisiana of the relatively new 14 th Amendment to the constitution, the clause defined US citizenship and not state citizenship. Butcher case in Louisiana also highlighted the violation of 13th Amendment and conflicting view of law regarding property. Jourdon Anderson: Also known as Jordan Anderson, he was a former slave who was famous for writing letters to his former master, Colonel P.H. Anderson (whom the former adopted the surname of the latter) after receiving a letter from the latter regarding Jordan’s return to the plantation as a working freedmen for his former master. Abraham Lincoln: First Republican nominee to be elected as the President. Though despising slavery, Lincoln called for the gradual abolition rather than immediate emancipation. His election sparked secessions and war amongst the Southern states. Jefferson Davis: Mississippi Senator and first (and last) president of the Confederate States of America. Initially argued against secession, but agreed that states have immutable autonomy to secede from the union. George McClellan: Prominent role as Union commander-in-chief from 1861 to 1862 as he was noted for bringing high morale and training to soldiers, but paranoia and meticulous overestimation of the enemy resulted in his removal from his position and later from the military. Robert E. Lee: Prominent role as Confederate general and military tactician although he had desires to stay with the Union and was originally offered by Lincoln a post in the Union army. Lee followed his home state instead and served in the Confederacy as a result. Salmon P. Chase: Politician, U.S. Senator from Ohio, Oh
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