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HUMA 1770
Leo Stan

Notes for chapter 20-22 Chapter 20- The Americas and society and culture in the west Latin America in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries The Wars for Independence -creole elites- descendants of Europeans who became permanent inhabitants of Latin America Nationalistic Revolts in Latin America -first revolt was actually a successful slave rebellion -Toussaint L’Ouverture (1746- 1803) led a revolt of more than 100,000 black slaves and seized control of all of Hispaniola -1810, Mexico experienced a revolt, fueled initially by the desire of the creole elites to overthrow the rule of the peninsulars -Indians and mestizos in Mexico’s revolt against Spanish -Jos_e de San Martı’n (1778-1850) of Argentina and Simo’n Bolı’var (1783--1830) of Venezuela, leaders of the independence movement -Bolı’var liberating northern South America from the Spanish -San Martı’n was concentrating his efforts on the southern part of the continent because he believed that the Spaniards must be removed from all of South America if any nation was to be free Independence and the Monroe Doctrine -British proposed joint action with the United States against European interference in Latin America -President James Monroe acted alone in 1823, guaranteeing the independence of the new Latin American nations and warning against any further European intervention in the Americas under Monroe Doctrine The Difficulties of Nation Building -wars for independence had themselves resulted in a staggering loss of population, property, and livestock Political Difficulties -new nations of Latin America established republican governments, but they had had no experience in ruling themselves -due to the insecurities prevalent after independence, strong leaders known as caudillos came to power -supported the elites, consisted of autocrats who controlled and often abused state revenues, centralized power, and kept the new national states together -modernizers who built roads and canals, ports, and schools Political Change in Latin America -United States became the chief foreign investor in Latin America The North American Neighbors: The United States and Canada The Growth of the United States -John Marshall made the Supreme Court into an important national institution by asserting the right of the Court to overrule an act of Congress if the Court found it to be in violation of the Constitution -election of Andrew Jackson (1767--1845) as president in 1828 opened era of mass democracy Slavery and the Coming of War -The cotton economy and social structure of the South were based on the exploitation of enslaved black Africans and their descendants -cotton economy depended on plantation-based slavery, and the South was determined to maintain them. In the North, many people feared the spread of slavery into western territories. - fighting erupted between North and South. The Civil War (1861--1865) -More than 600,000 soldiers died, either in battle or from deadly infectious diseases spawned by filthy camp conditions -Union states of the North mobilized their superior assets and gradually wore down the Confederate forces of the South - war against slavery - 1863, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation, declaring most of the nation’s slaves ‘‘forever free’’ -became a nation again The Rise of the United States - Slavery was formally abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865, and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments extended citizenship to blacks and gave black men the right to vote - Radical Reconstruction in the early 1870s tried to create a new South based on the principle of the equality of black and white people -militia organizations, such as the Ku Klux Klan, used violence to discourage blacks from voting. Prosperity and Progressivism -1860 and 1914, the United States made the shift from an agrarian to a mighty industrial nation -United States had become the world’s richest nation and greatest industrial power -Progressive Era after 1900, reform swept the United States. State governments enacted laws that governed hours, wages, and working conditions, especially for women and children -Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act provided for a limited degree of federal regulation of industrial practices The Making of Canada -Under the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Canada---or New France, as it was called---passed into the hands of the British. - 1867, Parliament established the Dominion of Canada, with its own constitution. Canada now possessed a parliamentary system and ruled itself, although foreign affairs still remained under the control of the British government The Emergence of Mass Society -mass society- was emerging in Europe, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century as a result of rapid economic and social changes -lower classes, mass society brought voting rights, an improved standard of living, and access to education The New Urban Environment -urban populations grew faster than the general population primarily because of the vast migration from rural areas to cities -city governments set up boards of health to improve the quality of housing and instituted regulations requiring all new buildings to have running water and internal drainage systems -governments were stepping into areas of activity that they would not have touched earlier The Social Structure of Mass Society -between lower middle class and lower class were white-collar workers who were the product of the Second Industrial Revolution. They were the salespeople, bookkeepers, bank tellers, telephone operators, and secretaries. The Movement for Women’s Rights -Suffragists- the right of women to full citizenship in the nation-state -Emmeline Pankhurst (1858--1928) and her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903, which enrolled mostly middle- and upper-class women Education in an Age of Mass Society -began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between the ages of six and twelve -better training of teachers by establishing teacher-training schools -mass education- many European states were providing state-financed primary schools, salaried and trained teachers, and free, compulsory elementary education Cultural Life: Romanticism and Realism in the Western World -end of the eighteenth century, a new intellectual movement known as Romanticism emerged to challenge the ideas of the Enlightenment The Characteristics of Romanticism -stressing the importance of feeling, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing -revived medieval Gothic architecture and left European countrysides adorned with pseudo-medieval castles and cities bedecked with grandiose neo-Gothic cathedrals, city halls, and parliamentary buildings A New Age of Science -Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) discovered the germ theory of disease, which had enormous practical applications in the development of modern scientific medical practices. -Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) in the 1860s classified all the material elements then known on the basis of their atomic weights and provided the systematic foundation for the periodic law -popularity of scientific and technological achievement produced a widespread acceptance of the scientific method as the only path to objective truth and objective reality -nineteenth century was an age of increasing secularization, evident in the belief that truth was to be found in the concrete material existence of human beings -Charles Darwin (1809-1882) published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. The basic idea of this book was that all plants and animals had each evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life, a principle known as organic evolution -some organisms were more adaptable to the environment than others, a process that Darwin called natural selection. Realism in Literature and Art -Realism was first employed in 1850 to describe a new style of painting and soon spread to literature. Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments A New Physics -relativity theory time and space disappear together with the things Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis -Freud devised a method, known as psychoanalysis, by which a psychotherapist and patient could probe deeply into the memory in order to retrace the chain of repression all the way back to its childhood origins - By making the conscious mind aware of the unconscious and its repressed contents, the patient’s psychic conflict was resolved. The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism and Racism -Charles Darwin’s principle of organic evolution was applied to the social order as social Darwinism, the belief that societies were organisms that evolved through time from a struggle with their environment Chapter 21- High Tide of Imperialism The Spread of Colonial Rule The Motives -primary motives behind the Western expansion were economic -reason for this change was the Industrial Revolution -industrializing countries in the West needed vital raw materials that were not available at home, as well as a reliable market for the goods produced in their factories -imperialism- efforts of capitalist states in the West to seize markets, cheap raw materials, and lucrative avenues for investment in the countries beyond Western civilization -colonies brought tangible benefits in the world of balance-of-power politics as well as economic profits, and many nations became involved in the pursuit of colonies as much to gain advantage over their rivals as to acquire territory for its own sake -colonialism had a moral purpose -->to promote Christianity or to build a better world The Tactics -Western presence in Asia and Africa had been limited to controlling the regional trade network and establishing a few footholds where the foreigners could carry on trade and missionary activity -After 1800, the demands of industrialization in Europe created a new set of dynamics -Maintaining access to industrial raw materials such as oil and rubber and setting up reliable markets for European manufactured products required more extensive control over colonial territories -colonial powers sought to solidify their hold over their territories to protect them from attack by their rivals The Colonial System -colonial powers primary objective was to exploit the natural resources of the subject areas and to open up markets for manufactured goods and capital investment from the mother country -indirect rule- goal could be realized in cooperation with local political elites, whose loyalty could be earned, or purchased, by economic rewards or by confirming them in their positions of authority and status in a new colonial setting -policy of indirect rule was not feasible because local leaders refused to cooperate with their colonial masters or even actively resisted the foreign conquest -local authorities were willing to collaborate with the imperialist powers, indirect rule was more common -Some of these variations can be traced to political or social differences among the colonial powers themselves The Philosophy of Colonialism -‘‘might makes right’’ pseudoscientific validity from the concept of social Darwinism, which maintained that only societies that moved aggressively to adapt to changing circumstances would survive and prosper in a world governed by the Darwinian law of ‘‘survival of the fittest.’’ -colonialism was originally an ‘‘act of force’’ undertaken for commercial profit Assimilation or Association? -French, who were most inclined to philosophize about the problem, adopted the terms assimilation (which implied an effort to transform colonial societies in the Western image) and association (implying collaboration with local elites while leaving local traditions alone) -British refused to entertain the possibility of assimilation and treated their subject peoples as culturally and racially distinct India Under the British Raj Colonial Reforms -By the early nineteenth century, British control had been consolidated and led to a relatively honest and efficient government that in many respects operated to the benefit of the average Indian -heightened attention given to education --> new school system was established to train the children of Indian elites, the British civil service examination was introduced and instruction of young girls expanded -British rule also brought an end to some of the more inhumane aspects of Indian tradition -attempted to put an end to the endemic brigandage (known as thuggee) that had plagued travelers in India The Costs of Colonialism -Indian people paid a high price for the peace and stability brought by the British raj (from the Indian raja, or prince) -most flagrant cost was economic -introduction of British textiles put thousands of Bengali women out of work and severely damaged the local textile industry -local gentry increased taxes and force the less fortunate peasants to become tenants or lose their land entirely -lack of local capital and the advantages given to British imports prevented the emergence of other vital new commercial and manufacturing operations Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia ‘‘Opportunity in the Orient’’: The Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia -process began after the Napoleonic wars, when the British, by agreement with the Dutch, abandoned their claims to territorial possessions in the East Indies in return for a free hand in the Malay peninsula -Singapore became a major stopping point for traffic en route to and from China and other commercial centers in the region The Nature of Colonial Rule -Southeast Asia, economic profit was the immediate and primary aim of colonial enterprise -colonial powers tried wherever possible to work with local elites to facilitate the exploitation of natural resources Administration and Education -Indirect rule, however convenient and inexpensive, was not always feasible -slow to adopt educational reforms -introduction of Western education was one of the justifications of colonialism, colonial officials soon discovered that educating native elites could backfire Economic Development -Colonial powers were equally reluctant to take up the ‘‘white man’s burden’’ in the area of economic development -primary goals were to secure a source of cheap raw materials and to maintain markets for manufactured goods -colonial policy concentrated on the export of raw materials -In some Southeast Asian colonial societies, a measure of industrial development did take place to meet the needs of the European population and local elites Colonialism and the Countryside -vast majority of people in the colonial societies continued to farm the land -plantation owners kept the wages of their workers at poverty level -Many plantation workers were ‘‘shanghaied’’ (the English term originated from the practice of recruiting laborers, often from the docks and streets of Shanghai, by unscrupulous means such as the use of force, alcohol, or drugs) to work
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