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HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

LECTURE 11 Test: 2 hours  PART I = Short answers / identifications (5x10 marks = 50 marks) 2 marks for each significant point o Identify and give the significance of 5 of the following terms of people o Don’t repeat material from 1 answer to the next o Each answer should identify 5 significant points about the term o Choice of 12, pick 5 o Define who that person is, what their contribution is, or what the concept o Religion? Religious figure? King/queen? Name of a particular concept?  Make a list of 40-50 terms – make 5 points about it o What did they do o How did they do it o When, where?  Done in single spaced – exam booklet  45 minutes – 1 hour  Stuff covered in class, review lecture notes/power point  PART II = Essay Question o Answer the following question in essay format. Make sure that you analyze 2 civilizations in your essay. Please write in complete sentences and paragraph form, but if you run short of time, point form answers are acceptable (50 marks) Civilization and the Impact of Contact. Most civilizations are expansive. Civilizations expand for a number of reasons (to search for resources, to control trade routes, to conquer others or defend against potential rivals, to spread religious ideologies, etc). As civilizations expand, they came into contact with foreign civilizations. What happens when 2 civilizations make contact? Is the outcome cultural domination (the destruction of a civilization by the more powerful one) or cultural hybridization (an inter-mixing of the 2 civilizations)? When 2 civilizations come into contact, what are the positive and negative effects (political, cultural, economic, and technological)? In your answer, be sure to address how the interaction between 2 civilizations might have shaped their development. (Up to 1500 CE)  Conquests or trades?  Interactions  NOT physical human migration  Cultural contacts  Ex: Greece and Rome  Ex: China and Japan  Ex: Egypt and Kush  Ex: Arabs and Persians  Debate: globalization begins when trade routes link between civilizations or the peripheral Eurasian Trade Routes  Inter-region trade routes = Asia, E Africa, Europe  Silk Road, Naval routes cover the major civilization in Asia, Europe and E/N Africa  Mongol empire with aggressive army, was into promoting trade African Trade Routes  Linked by land route and by river route to the rest of Western Africa  Extensive mining West African Agriculture  Different climate across different regions  Some woodland, some dessert  affect migration  Tend to move where there is food and where there’s a chance of migration o To Asia and to Europe o Vast area of grassland  World is divided into inhabitable or habitable zones – leads to migration The Bantu Migration  1. From north to south (along the west coast of Africa)  2. To east then south  Took place over many centuries  Spread all over sub-saharan Africa  Spread of settled agriculture and iron working The Settlement of the Pacific  Initially a migration from Indonesia to Australia  As a result of land riches that appeared in ice ages  Became isolated after the water turned back  Australia lacked in resources, weren’t able to develop many things that other parts of the world can  Massive expansion towards the Pacific (the Polynesians migration) – island hopping o With resources from island to island, building these large boats Polynesia  Last island settled by human (New Zealand) – until 1000 CE (land on the bottom left) Polynesian Body Art – The Tattoo  Long tradition of painting permanently to their body  Religious and political statement Rapa Nui (Easter Island)  Last to be settled, furthest to the east on the map  A name Europeans gave when they settled there  Over-graced/used their resources and their civilization collapsed from hunger  Left behind tall statues (70 feet high) Video:  Maroon Island: Worshipped birds who had freedom of the sky  Never saw them come down from the sky, so they viewed them as sacred  Carving of super natural birds  Cut down forests to grow crops and shelters for growing population  Once timbers were all used, couldn’t build canoes anymore  Faced starvation, warfare broke out against clans Summary (so far)  3 areas of the world where people were linked with each other  Africa-Eurasia – large land mass where human lived for a long period  The Americas – isolated from the rest of humanity until modern era (except Vikings)  Oceania – whole area of pacific (Australia, Polynesian island)  Interlinked with each other in various ways, but not to each other  Trade and religion create large zone of cultural and interaction (influence over inhabitants part of the world) Part 4: The Mongol Empire  Karakorum = largest physical land empire in history founded by Genghis Khan The Nomadic Peoples of the Steppes  Grassland from China through Mongolia, Central Asia, Russia, Ukraine, to the River  Root of migration, move from one part to another  Migration from east to west over centuries  Domestication of horses = 1600 years ago (4000 BCE)  Raised cattle, sheep, goats o As a source of transportation and food  Need to keep moving so there’s a constant supply of grass for their animals  Nomadic were mobile  Lived in tents Nomadic Patterns of Migration  People now live in Europe, were originally from central/eastern Asia over a long period of time  Ability to attack and pillage existing settled civilization o China was constantly raided by northern nomadic people. Read why great wall was built Genghis Khan  Lord of all men  The Khuriltai of 1206 = given the crown to be emperor  Organized ambitious military strategy  Undertook wars and conquests  Within his lifetime, China, Korea, Middle East, came under Mongol rules The Mongol Empire  Their mobility provided advantages to them  Extent of the Mongol Empire  Military campaign 1236 = all the way to Poland  After the death of Khan was divided into 4 parts  Orange, green, blue, yellow (china) Mongol Horseman (Artist’s conception)  Horseback warrior: wore armour made of leather (not metal like Europeans) very tough, but light  Advantages = military like Greeks o Based on principle of merit o Military was divided into diff units o Each military unit one, soldiers would elect their leader o Enormous of freedom of organization in terms of leaders being chosen o Create 10000 of troops each  Their speed and flexible tactics made them very difficult to be stopped  Had complex costume because of the nature of their geography  Mongolia is VERY cold in winter (-60) o Wore many layers of clothes but all very light weight o Wore silk (light, strong, difficult to pierce)  Took over the old imperial system after Khan’s death  Unified by short period of time, empire divided into 4 parts  Marco Polo (from Italy) travelled to China o Through connections and the writings people have done over time o Mongols would welcome strangers/merchants o Trade = success of initial Mongol Empire o A lot of technology by Chinese to be passed on to Europe through Mongols  Mongols = excellent traders  Religious policy was unusual o Very open to diff religions o Muslims and Christians subject to Mongol empire o Early Khans chose not to embrace any of them, but kept their mind open o Religions co-existed under Khan o Tibet’s religion became their official religion after Khan’s death Europe  Famine, plaque, peasant rebellion, long war of England and France in Middle Ages  Population fell in 14 century  Catholic church split into 2 Europe (1500)  Very fragmented politically  Germany, Italy fragmented until late 19 century  Small stateless, ruled by local nobles  No strong centralization  See rebirth of Europe, monarchs began to appear (attempt to move beyond the feudal system-created by France)  Development of trades is crucial to understand the rebirth of Europe  Improved mining abstracting  Minting coin easier  Business of trade easier  Gold = became the equilvalent dollar throughout Europe (accepted wherever you went)  Led to private ownership  Use of credit and money (capitalism – first revolutionized in Europe, then the rest of the world)  Took place in Holland, England, France, Germany European Cities (1650)  Largest city = London, Paris Trade Associations  Groups of merchants joint together  Trade network encompassed in most of Europe  Center of all business activity  Made distinctive palaces to extinguish their wealth Korenzo de’ Medici  Portrait of patraict The Duomo Science during the Renaissance  Science development, many borrowed from other civilization  Re-discovery of scientific works of ancient Greek  New modern printing press developed by Chinese development  Astronomy  Telescope to look at stars – profound help of understanding the universe Literature  Boccaccio  Rabelais  Shakespeare LECTURE 12 The History of Globalization (Protoglobalization c1500)  P.57 of Stearns  Major transformation = change in global geography (p.58) or change in awareness about human geography  Caused by: “the new world” – the American continent  The old world = Afro-Eurasian axis  People who lived in Americas and Oceania were unaware of the Europeans, Africans, Asians and Arabs Map of World 1531  People’s sheer knowledge of how the world is connected Map of World 1616  Consciousness: people had no clue they were connected geographically The Ottoman Turks  Osmanli Turks (Ottoman) = cousins of the Mongols  Muslims (emerged from Anatolia) – highland of modern day Turkey  Began to move for 150 years  Conquered Constantinople in 1453 (Roman Empire)  renamed it Istanbul  Byzantine Empire became the Ottoman Empire o Cut Europeans off from the overland route to the East (to get silk/spices from the Asia) The Silk Road  Routes from Europe, across the land, into China and further down to the south to get silk and spices Europe in 1500  Ottoman Empire began expanding after took over Byzantine Empire The Reconquesta of Spain 1492  Spain was unified under the Christian King and Queen  Last of Muslim kingdom (controlling Spain) were kicked out, returned to North Africa Ferdinand and Isabella  King and the Queen The East Indies of Indonesia Christopher Columbus  tried to convince others to sail West, go around, then you can get to East Indies  educated; knew the world is round Vasco da Gama  sailed west, then south, swings around then go all the way to India  sails back the same way The Portuguese Empire  trading station throughout Africa, India, Asia  described as Crown capitalism / globalization  Portuguese Monarchy controlled these trade stations th  16 century = Portuguese never controlled more than 50% of spice trade  Excluded from the Red Sea by Muslim merchants based on kinship and religion Before Columbus  Other non-Aboriginal people who travelled to Americas before Columbus (myths/stories): o Aliens from outer space o Egyptians o Polynesians o Israelites o Irish Monks o Vikings o European Fishermen o The Chinese Admiral Zheng He of China  Muslim, led 7 Chinese western maritime expeditions  Sailed within the Indiana Ocean and the Red Sea Christopher Columbus  Made 4 voyages of “uncover” between 1492-1505  He never knew where he was until his dying day  He thought he was in the Indies, so called the people there Indians (aka the Indigenous)  Uncovery = he didn’t discover, it was always there (the New World existed and was populated before the coming of the Europeans) Amerigo Vespucci  First European to realize that a new continent had been uncovered  Traveled to the new lands after Columbus and may have landed in Brazil  Called th new territory “Amerigo’s land” – became slurred into “America” Martin Waldseemuller’s World Map 1507 The Division of the Non-European World (Including America)  1493: Pope Alexander VI divided non-European world between Spain and Portugal  Spanish expored most of islands of the Caribbean and conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico (1519) The Spanish Empire  Spanish silver coins became the basis of trade between European countries and China  17 century: more Mexican pesos (currency) circulated in China than in Mexico because of their standard silver content  Spain and China connected through trade in the Philippine Islands (30000 Chinese merchants meeting in Philippine Island)  Spanish silver coin could be cut into Pieces of Eight (8 sections) – a Spanish Dollar  Coin can be used in half (4 reales), quarters (2 reales) or a single (8 reales) The Pacific Region (Oceania) – Asturalia and New Zealand  Europeans didn’t know Pacific Ocean existed  Until Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa uncovered it in 15113  Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition for Spain in 1519-1522 = first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into Pacific Ocean (the named it “peaceful sea” by Magellan) o From Spain, leaving Atlantic, hugging the coast of S America, across Pacific Ocean, then finally to Philippine  Privateers (commissioned by royal governments and funded by a consortium of wealthy individuals in each country to raid the Spanish treasure ships and colonies)  Pirates = kept the loot and shared it among themselves  Privateers were given a letter of marquee and reprisal = gave them immunity from prosecution by the government of their homeland The Other European Nations  British didn’t establish their first permanent colony until 1608  Not until 100 years later, that other nations began to sink roots into the New World  They focused on privates Francis Drake 1543-1596  As a slaver (on ships from Africa to the Americas)  1570s: received commission from QEI as a privateer (hired to steal from the Spanish)  Attacked Spanish ships and settlements in the Caribbean  Knighted by QEI after The Dutch  1648: won independence from Spain after 80 years of war  1600: first established successful non-Spanish colony on the island of St. Eustatius  Beginning of penetration and colonization of the region by the other European nations Impersonal Capitalism  Development of national East and West Indies companies represented development of a new economic organization  International joint-stock impersonal (bureaucratic) profit-oriented capitalist company, which was prepared to use armed force and didn’t depend on kinship and regional ties for trading (Stearns p.70) St. Kitts  1624 = French and British joined forces to defeat the Carib Indians who lived on St. Kitts (very tiny island)  After they won, they fought each other for its possession  1783: taken over by British  Fought for WHITE GOLD = sugar Sugar  Atlantic slave trade = the “triangular trade”  Europeans went to the coast of Africa and asked for slaves  Europeans packed their ships with slaves to West Indies (used to harvest sugar/tabbacco)  Went up to the states where they harvested tobacco (raw material processed in Europe, used to trade with Africans for slaves)  Connect Europe, America and Africa  Sugarcane originated in New Guinea (South Pacific) – where they just chewed for years  Spread to Asia, India, and China - cultivated it and bred with other plants to form thin shoots  Reached to Egypt  Spain  1493: Columbus introduced it into Caribbean, later spread across the Caribbean by Jews  1760: Britain gave Franc a choice between Canada and Caribbean island of Martinique  France chose Martinique because its sugar was more important (can get more money, over a big piece of land) An 18 -century Coffee House by William Hogarth  where people drank their coffee Rum  very important  main component = laced with water, given to the sailors in the British navy as part of their daily rations Tea  Chinese legend: 2737, 2 Chinese emperor Shen Nung discovered tea  As a “magic potion” – drink lots of tea, you have a long life  First mention of tea in Europe = 1589 Tobacco  Indigenous to the Americas (only grown in Americas)  Oct 14, 1492 – Columbus offered dried tobacco as a gift from American Indians  Pltht grown all over Europe (thought it was a cure for all diseases)  17 century: cultivated in S part of British Slavery  For the first time in history, slaves were particularly of one race = Africans  African slaves to Arabian peninsula and Americas  The slave coast of Africa, went to Caribbean or Brazil, United States, Spanish Colonies  40% in Caribbean islands, 4% N America, 38% Brazil, 16^ to Spanish America/Caribbean, 2% Asia Oceania  Spread of Asians to Oceania  1606: 1 landfall by European on Australian soil when Dutch East India Company ship explored the western coast of Australia  1788 British claimed New Zealand  Australia got its name in 1844 Columbian Exchange  Tndnsfer of plants/food, animals and germs between Europeans and native Americans  2 voyage: Columbus brought horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, pigs, chickens, goats, plants (sugarcane), onions, banana tree, wheat  Native Americans never seen horses  Spanish introduced North American natives to horses, then adopted to travel and hunt buffalo  Europeans brought advanced weapons – firearms, canons to create gunpowder empires The Native Population  Not indigenous to North or south America  Came from Asia, at Ice Age of Bering Sea – crossed over the land to Alaska 18000 years ago The Americans  Divided into many tribes  Fiercest tribe = Caribs Arawaks/Tainos (Lucayans)  Columbus landed in Bahamas in 1492, lived many Lucayans  Developed political/social system  Indians Killed them off by enslavement of the Spanish to find gold/silver, European disease against which they had no genetic immunity o Small pox, measles, diphtheria, chicken pox, typhoid fever, scarlet fever o Smallpox and measles were devastating  Indians transmitted a new strain of syphilis that killed millions of Europeans (the “Montezuma’s Revenge”)  Africans were immune to European disease because of previous contacts with Muslims from the Middle East  The Muslims were immune to European disease because of their prior contact with Europeans Virgin-Soil Epidemics  Contagious diseases contacted through new interaction Ecological Imperialism  Columbian Exchange wasn’t an exchanged  Rather it was European ecological imperialism  Wherever in the world European colonized outside of Europe, they replaced the natives and took over their land and also transplanted the ecosystems and ways of life of their homeland  Ex: cut down the virgin forests to establish farms Limitation and Inequalities  Destroyed the culture of the Indigenous  Introduced slavery  Took over their land  Slowness of transportation/communications The Great Divergence  Manufacturing in China and India 1750  Due to American colonies o Source of gold/silver o Source of new food o Outlet for surplus population o Greater marketers  greater production/productivity  mechanization  industrialization  Enabled growth of capitalism o First windfall = precious metal The Industrial Revolution  Cotton spinning mechanized  Steam engines  applied to textile production  Advancement in iron making to build the machines  Too much of gold/silver = inflation (greater expense)  Abundance of silver in China caused collapse of Ming Dynasty in 1644  Mid-1840s: found new product to sell the Chinese = Opium th  Mid-19 : British fought 2 wars to force Chinese government to legalize opium  China is suffering because the West is suffering World Wars Over Trade  17 and 18 century: series of world wars by Europeans  80 years war between Netherlands and Spain for Dutch independence 1568-48  9 years war between France 7 Years War  UK, Prussia, Portual and allies  France, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and allies  Over who can control the trades  Winner = UK American Revolution  Fallot spread to the Caribbean after France Spain Holland declared support for the American rebels  Goal = weaken British, so they abandon Caribbean Seeds of Change  Birth of globalization = new wave during 1850s st nd  Discovery to Americas to 1 phase to 2 phase of globalization
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