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HUMA 1910 (10)
Final

Winter Final Exam Notes 2
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Department
Humanities
Course
HUMA 1910
Professor
Joan Steigerwald
Semester
Fall

Description
Introduction to Communications Winter Exam Review BBG (Board of Broadcast governors): ∗ Was a regulating body that was created in 1958 and replaced by the CRTC in 1968 Branch Plants: ∗ Subsidiaries of foreign companies Bill C-58: ∗ Stopped border broadcasters Broadcasting Act (1932 radio, 1936 CBC, 1958 TV, 1968 Cable, 1991 Satellite) ∗ The first broadcasting act was in 1932. It was reviewed in 36, 58, 68 and 91. ∗ It sets out the objectives for Canadian broadcasting generally and for the CBC specifically ∗ It specifies the composition of the CBCs board of governors, the creation of the broadcasting regulatory agency (CRTC), content rules and so on ∗ Go into each detail from each reform ∗ In 1936 the CBC was given the power to regulate the industry including the private industry ∗ the complaints from the private industry was that they were being regulated by their competitors and thus the BBG was regulated as an outside broadcasting source CBC Financing: • Financed through the use of the profits of those programs to cross subsidize to pay for the production of Canadian programming • Financed by tax on imported TV parts CBC Mandate and Responsibilities: • Promote Canadian nationalism through Canadian programming • Undertake network responsibilities • CBC supplies privates with network service and programming but privates prefer importing US programming over their own Characteristics of Canadian Content: ∗ Alegal definition of material that either has been developed by Canadian and/or contains Canadian information; in broadcasting, filmmaking and publishing, Canadian content is defined by reference to a specific set of production criteria, rather than content per se, designed to encourage the production of Canadian cultural materials by Canadians. Characteristics of the Canadian State Common Carrier: ∗ Acompany that provides telecommunication services to all members of the public at equitable rates ∗ Provides carriage services (the dissemination/transmission of communications) rather than content Forms of Concentration of Ownership: ∗ The consolidation of ownership of a number of media organizations by relatively few large corporations. There are a number of different types or forms of media concentration, such as horizontal or chain ownership, vertical integration and cross media ownership. ∗ Horizontal, vertical and cross media Conglomerate: ∗ Acompany that contains within it many companies carrying on a variety of business not necessarily related to one another: a media conglomerate does the majority if its business in the media; a general or non-media conglomerate has its foundation in non-media forms. ∗ One company in a field buys up other companies in the same field CopyrightAct: • Copyright law transforms the expression of ones intellectual efforts into a piece of property that can be owned. It is designed to help ensure that writers and artists are paid for their work and that their work is not used without their permission. • Updating the copyright act has proven particularly vexing in terms of balancing the rights of large corporate producers, performers, consumers, small producers and educations. • Legal framework governing the right to reproduce a published work • (Privacy is an issue within copyright and should be taken into consideration as well) CRBC: • Set up to create a national broadcasting network and Canadian programming. They were enacted with national purposes. • Set up in 1932, (Multiple choice question), became CBC in 1936 • Had 3 responsibilities o Network responsibility o Produce Canadian content o Regulate the industry CRTC: ∗ The federal agency that enforces the rules and regulations for broadcasters and telecommunications companies in Canada, as set out in the telecommunications act ∗ Providing a wide range of programming that reflects Canadian attitudes, opinions, ideas, values and artistic creativity ∗ Displaying Canadian talent in entertaining programming ∗ Offering information and analysis concerning Canada and other countries from a Canadian point of view ∗ Regulates telecoms. Enforces and interprets the legislation to ensure that aims of parliament are being met o Controls entry to the field (Licensing) o Sets terms and standards for those companies operating there o Polices those companies to ensure that they meet the general aims of legislation and specific rules ∗ Strengthens content regulations and spurs music industry ∗ Licenses first French network ∗ Reign in cable, limit stations (3+1), introduce simultaneous program substitution Crown Corporation: ∗ Businesses owned by federal or provincial governments, but operating at arms length from government as individual corporations ∗ Protect and provide services that private enterprises might not wish to pursue Cultural Imperialism: ∗ The ways, in which one culture imposes ideas and values on another culture, with the effect of undermining the cultural values of the recipient; media and cultural products is a primary vehicle for such imposition. ∗ The process whereby the cultural artifacts of a politically and economically dominant power enter into another country and eventually dominate it ∗ Spreading of cultural, political and other values of dominant power Cultural Sovereignty: ∗ The capacity of a state or group to govern cultural activity (i.e. form policy, establish laws and conventions) independent of interference from other governments or groups. Digital Divide: ∗ The increasing difference in the development and use of information and communication technology between rich and poor countries and between the haves and have not’s within a specific society ∗ Refers to socioeconomic factors, influence participation in information and communication technologies Digitalization: ∗ The process whereby the content of the medium is converted into computer readable format and can be manipulated and transmitted electronically Effects Research: ∗ Seeks to identify the direct impacts of the media on human behavior Economy of Scale: ∗ Efficiencies in costs that can be achieved via repetition of some aspects of the production and distribution processes and the elimination of other processes ∗ Ex: the reduction of the per unit cost of printing 10000 copies of a book once the presses have been set up as opposed to printing 1000 copies Fourth Estate: ∗ The media; refers to the role of the media in watching over the other powerful institutions in society Gatekeeping: ∗ The control of access to media publication or broadcast that determines what gains access according to the identity or character of the media outlet. ∗ He process of selecting which stories and events make news ∗ Agenda setting: the process by which priorities are established. Usually in reference to elite actors or media owners/managers using their influence to shape government priorities ∗ Framing: Describes how media conceptualizes an issue or person in general ∗ Priming: Specifics what was conceptualized and why Free Flow of Information: ∗ The doctrine that advocates the rights of producers to sell information to anyone anywhere, and conversely, the right of any individual to choose to receive any information from any source Geostationary Satellites: ∗ An orbit situated directly over the equator in which objects rotating around the earth remain in a fixed location relative to the earth. Globalization: ∗ The process by which social, political and economic relations extend further than ever before, with greater frequency, immediately and facility ∗ Increase mobility of people, capital, commodities, information and images ∗ Distance is less an impediment to communication that it has been before Government Ownership: Holistic/ Prescriptive Technologies: Harold Innis: ∗ Time bias o Technologies are durable, preserve empire and knowledge over time, require translation, embodied best in a culture and difficult to move o Example: Speech- direct face to face contact passes down knowledge from generation to generation and promotes tradition, communal society, hierarchical static society, more emotional than rational and most thoughts are concrete ∗ Space Bias o Flexible alphabet, paper easily transportable but not durable, promotes change, expansion and growth, not localized, promoted political societies, individualistic, highly productive, secular, more materialistic, less regard for tradition Information Economy: Media Imperialism: ∗ The use of the media to build empires of influence and control Mandate: ∗ Aresponsibility guaranteed legally or via another outside authority to pursue a certain purpose Monopoly: ∗ Exclusive control over the supply of a particular product for a specified market; a market in which consumers have a single source for a product or service NWICO: ∗ New World Information and Communication Order ∗ Views communication as a right integral to individual and cultural development rather than a commodity or an industry ∗ make global media representations more equitable, they were concerned with the control the west had on the media industry Oligopoly: ∗ Few competitors dominate the industry ∗ High barriers of entry ∗ Price setter Public versus Private Ownership: ∗ Public ownership: Ownership by arms length government agencies, which members of the public can join for a token membership fee. Public ownership contrasts to commercial or private ownership of commercial companies, some of which are publically traded and therefore called, in business circles, public companies. Radio Spectrum: ∗ Spectrum is viewed as public space ∗ Spectrum is sold off in open auctions hosted by federal government through Industry Canada to the highest bidders ∗ Majority of spectrum is owned by media conglomerates and left little space for public broadcasting and left no room for innovation Royal Commission: ∗ 1929, federally funded commission that recommended the creation of a national, publically funded broadcasting system in Canada Sign/Signifier/ Signified: ∗ Sign:Aphysical form used in communication to refer to something else ∗ Signifier: the physical form of the sign ∗ Signified: The mental concept of what is referred to Synergies: ∗ The interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations, substances or other agents to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects Convergence: ∗ Generally bringing together once separate communication technologies such as telephone, broadcasting, computers and sound and video recording into one technological platform such as the Internet. They key to this technological convergence is the digitalization of media content such that it can be translated into common format. Similarly, concentration of ownership is sometimes referred to as corporate convergence as media companies combine the resources and content of two or more different media properties to realize cost savings in content production and cross promotional opportunities. ∗ Three types of convergence o Technical: converging of technology o Corporate: Concentration of ownership o Commercial: Companies take advantage of technological convergence to create bundles to sell Technological Determinism: ∗ The notion that technology is an autonomous and powerful driving force in structuring society or elements of society Technological Imperative: ∗ The notion that technological developments provide form and direction to social development ∗ The perspective that privileges the conceptualization and development of te
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