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Worlds of Childhood exam review.docx

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York University
HUMA 1970
Cheryl Cowdy- Crawford

Chapter 1 Play and the cultures of childhood Play makes childrens world different from that of an adult even though adults can join childrens play they may not always be welcome childrens enthusiasm for play defines what childhood is about Play in childhoodan historical perspective One of the most influential attempts to explain the importance of childrens play came from the publication of Emile by Jean Jacques Rousseau in 1762 Rousseaudescrivbed the ideal education for a young man with a strong emphasis on encouraging free expression and natural playfulnessRouseau said it is nothing to jump play and run all day He will never be so busy in his life Rousseaus views are described as an expression of a Romantic discourse on childhood Puritan had its own view allowing children to give free vent to playful pleasures was seen as a risk to the civilizing process which could only be chieveed through strict training and sound teaching Putritan viewed play as being linked to the animal origins of humankind Henry Mayhhew social commentator he had a meeting with a young girl selling watercress on the streets of London after he spoke with her and learned about her hardship mayheuw suggested that the watercress girl had been deprived of her childhood because her responsibilities did not allow her time to play educatonists adopted the idea that play is the natural way for children to learn Friedrich Froebel In 19 century germany he founded the first kindergarden in 1837 He was deeply opposed to approached based on obedience and training He said the plays of childhood are the germinal leaves of all later life for the whole man is shown and developed in theseplay is not trivial it is highly serious and of deep significanceSusan Isaacs One of the pioneers of nursery education in England She famously coined the expression Play isthe childs work play based learning has since become one of the basic principles progressive or child centered education Play and learning educationists werent the only who recognized the significance of play Charles Darwin s evolutionarytheories promped biologists and developmental psychologistsKarl Groos Dutch Biologists challenged conventional wisdom he stated the idea that children play because they are young and frolicsomearguing instead that human immaturity is important in order for children to have time to play and learn the complex skills required to reach adult maturity Jean Piaget child development say play as mainly as na opportunity for children to practice and consolidate newly emrging skills where failure qouldnt have serious consequences Piagets play stages 1solitary play involving repetition on newly learned skills ex practicing pilling bricks one atop the other stage of dev sensorimotorapprox 1 to 2 yrs old 2Beggining to use objects and actions symbolicallyex a make believe game where child behave as if they are a parent nurse supermanStage of dev preoperational aprox 3 to 6 yrs old 3Fully collaborative play with others able to understand from other peoples point of view exelaborate role playing games with rulesStage of dev Concrete aoperationalapprox 7 and older Lev Vygotsky Russian Psychologist says play has a more crucial role in childrens development from which they extend their skills play enables them to explore ways of talking thi king feeling and behaving that otherwise wouldnt have been possiblePlay and Emotions Signmund Freud psychoanalysis Explored the possibility that the inner world of a childs psyche could be revealed through their play he believed that children enact difficult and troubling situations during play so they can control thempsyoanalysis view play as a vehicle for expression feelings Anna Freud During WW2 she set up a nursery for children in London so she could observe childrens play as a method of diagnosis Play self and social understanding Pretend play and make believe situations they are form of rehearsal for future roles in adult life researchers have also pointed out the importance of role play to a childs developing sense of identity GH Mead Explored the development of language play and game sin children Mead said that when children engage in role play activities such as cowboy and Indians mother and father they imagine themselves in different social roles in ways that enables them to develop a sense of themselves as individuals with a distinct characterMost important with his theory is the idea that it is only by playing other roles that children develop a mature reflective sense of who they are and how they are seen by others Peter and Iona Opie Pioneered the idea that childrens play culture exists and can be studied on its own terms study of childrens expressive culture they are folklorists They suggest that the cultural worlds of children are sustained by the games and activities that they engage in form which adults can get an idea of childrens world the public was in concern that that lore was in decline they wanted to find out how much of it still existed they did first hand observations of childrens culture on playground they wrote book to disproof that play is fading
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