KINE 2049 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hypertext, World Wide Web Virtual Library, Testability

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Chapter 1- The Scientific Process
Wilbur and Orville Wright’s success in flying the first plane resulted in the start of
aeronautics
Research plays the role of expanding our knowledge and understanding of human
movement
Organization of the Textbook
Research reports follow a standard format
o Introduction and Literature review-presents information on the philosophy of
research
o Methods- focuses on experimental design
o Results- how to interpret the data
o Discussion- presents topics that the researcher must consider when conducting
research
Research in Sport and Exercise
This is a young discipline and is developing
Why Study Research Methods?
Enhance your understanding of other courses
Read and interpret journal articles
Parity Claims
Careful wording that makes a product seem better than another one
Testimonials
Statement providing evidence to support a claim
Claim that these products work for all people is not necessarily valid
Statistical information
Statistics can be made to say just about anything
Gaining Knowledge
6 Step Process
o Ask a new question
o Make initial observations
o Conduct a systematic investigation
o Analyze new information
o Interpret the findings and
o Integrate the findings with previous knowledge
Theories
A set of related statements that explain a set of facts
Galen’s animal spirit theory, proven wrong when microscopes were invented
Galvani conducted electrical experiments on frogs- nervous system is related to
electricity
Theories serve 2 general roles
Help organize info and facts about events/ behaviours
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Used to make predictions that provide the basis for new research
Evaluating Theories
Three factors help researchers judge theories: Precision, simplicity and testability
o Precision- how accurate it describes behaviour or make predictions
o Simplicity- # of qualifiers or special conditions to meet before a prediction can be
made
Occam’s Razor-explanations should be kept as simple as possible
o Testability- the extent in which empirical methods may be used to gather evidence
about a theory
Theories in the News
The Ultra Violet Light Theory for the mysterious disappearance of frogs
o Thinning of ozone layer. UV thought to be dangerous to amphibians
Two social theories for inappropritate rising intonation
o Common among adolescent females, Valley Speak- inappropriate rising
intonations
o T1-approval gaining device for when speaking to authority
o T2- Trendy speech influenced by peers and b/c parents/adults disapprove
Three theories for origin of HIV
o T1- new viruses develop from old ones
o T2- viruses affecting one species may affect another
o T3- viruses may seem new when appearing in large amounts of people
Theories in Sport and Exercise Sciences
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
DOMS is a muscle sorness that occurs 24-48 hours after strenuous eccentric exercise
o Pain and stiffness for 2-3 days
o Connective tissue damage-exercise causes stress to CT resulting in small tears
o Muscle tear theory-tissue damage in muscle fibres rather than in CT
o Muscle spasm-DOMS is localized spasms- incr muscle tension and reduce range
of motions
Static stretching does not prevent DOMS
Benefits of Random Practice
Random schedules- golf club switch example
Elaboration theory- random practice helps user discriminate subtle differences
Memory reconstruction theory-action plans are created when practicing, but with random
practice the plans are forced to be thrown away. Process of construction of plan and
tossing results in effective learning
Mental Practice
Cognitive rehearsal of physical skills
Neuromuscular theory- when mentally practicing a skill, signals are still sent to the
muscles, but at a low enough level that no movements are made
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Cognitive theory-mental practice helps better understand the goal thus making practice
more effective
Hypotheses
Prediction based on the theory
Levels of Knowledge
Scientia- latin word for Science- means having knowledge
Developments of scientific knowledge has many levels
o Description of behaviour, building toward the prediction of behaviour, control of
behaviour, and the explanation of behaviour
Research to Describe
CVD accounts for 50% of deaths in US
Agencies gather this information- it says nothing about who is susceptible but can help
with comparing with past trends
Research to Predict
By demonstrating a relationship between variables we can make predictions
Research to Control
If we understand how things relate, we can control events
Research to Explain
Hardest one to develop b/c it requires an understanding of cause and effect relationships
We need to explain why things happen, not just be able to do it
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning- logically drawing conclusions- general to specific
Inductive reasoning- specific to general
o This method is preferred b/c of its reliance on empirical methods
Scientific Axioms
Axioms are general in nature but provide a basis from which knowledge is developed
Amorality- this is controversial b/c some experiments are seen as wrong by certain
groups
Caution-scientist should be careful when gathering data
Consistency-the universe is orderly and remains constant for long periods
Determinism- the cause of all events can be determined for certain reasons
Empiricism-knowledge should be based on observations of the world and not opinions
Intelligibility- when systematically studied the world can be understood by humankind
Objectivity- scientist must remain impartial when making observations and
interpretations
Parsimony-all things being equal, the simplest and most concise explanations are
preferred
Physical Reality-space, time, and matter are real and therefore subject to study
Quantifiability- what exist, exist to the extent that it can be observed and measured
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