Statistics is making sense of large amounts of data, and making use of them. Descriptive statistics: summarizing and organizing the data in a meaningful way there is no cause and e ect relationship in descriptive stats its good for hypothesis making, when starting a new area of research. Inferential statistics: are a way of making conclusions about populations, you use small samples. Populations can be any group that the researcher picks the characteristic of the population that you are examining is called the parameter. Sample: a subgroup of the population that the research makes sure represents the population: n= the size of the sample, a characteristics of a sample is a statistic. Classi cation of data (levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal. Each one becomes more speci c and provides more information. January 10th: the order that they are presented in makes a di erence, this could be university rankings, like kinesiology is 3rd in canada, or how you do in.